James D. Callahan

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Five fluorogenic probe hydrolysis (TaqMan) reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays were developed for serotypes 1 to 4 and group-specific detection of dengue virus. Serotype- and group-specific oligonucleotide primers and fluorogenic probes were designed against conserved regions of the dengue virus genome. The RT-PCR assay is a rapid single-tube method(More)
Transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) via boar semen has been documented. Since semen is widely disseminated for artificial insemination and the virus can cause significant health and economic consequences, it is essential to have well-validated, rapid diagnostic techniques to detect and quantitate the virus for(More)
A fluorogenic-probe hydrolysis (TaqMan)-reverse transcriptase PCR assay for classical swine fever virus (CSFV) was developed and evaluated in experimentally infected swine. The assay detected CSFV, representing different phylogenetic groupings, but did not amplify viral RNA from related pestiviruses. The assay met or exceeded the sensitivity (1 to 100 50%(More)
A fluorogenic probe hydrolysis (TaqMan) PCR assay for African swine fever virus (ASFV) was developed and evaluated in experimentally infected swine. This sensitive and specific one-step single-tube assay, which can be performed in 2 h or less, detected viral DNA in tonsil scraping samples 2 to 4 days prior to onset of clinical disease. Thus, the assay would(More)
A fluorogenic-probe hydrolysis (TaqMan)-reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR for classical swine fever virus (CSFV) was evaluated for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by using clinical samples obtained from the Dominican Republic, where the disease is enzootic. The sensitivity of this test, using nasal swab samples taken from both symptomatic and(More)
A survey was conducted from October 1, 1993 to June 30, 1995 to determine the arboviral etiologies of febrile illnesses in the city of Iquitos in the Amazon River Basin of Peru. The study subjects were patients who were enrolled at medical care clinics or in their homes by Peruvian Ministry of Health (MOH) workers as part of the passive and active disease(More)
The first confirmed outbreak of dengue fever in Peru occurred during 1990 in Iquitos, a city of approximately 300,000 residents in the Amazon region. Because of the apparent establishment of endemic transmission of this mosquito-borne viral disease following the outbreak, epidemiologic studies were initiated in 1992. Blood specimens and data on demographic,(More)
Emerging respiratory disease agents, increased antibiotic resistance, and the loss of effective vaccines threaten to increase the incidence of respiratory disease in military personnel. We examine six respiratory pathogens (adenoviruses, influenza viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis) and(More)
An outbreak of a febrile illness characterized by headache, ocular pain, myalgia, and arthralgia occurred during June 1994 among Peruvian army troops in Northern Peru. On June 14-16, 1994, clinical data and blood samples were obtained from eight soldiers with a febrile illness, and from 26 others who had a history of febrile illness during the past three(More)
A large seroepidemiologic and genotyping study of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was conducted in Lima, Peru, during the periods of 1986 to 1993 (cohort A) and 1994 (cohort B). Anti-HCV seroprevalence rates were 15.6% (216 of 1,389) and 11.7% (168 of 1,438), respectively. Low rates were seen among volunteer blood donors (1.1% and 0.8%). Anti-HCV rates were much(More)