James D. Benson

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The impact of successful cryopreservation of spermatozoa can be found in many fields, including agriculture, laboratory animal medicine, and human assisted reproduction, providing a cost-effective and efficient method to preserve genetic material for decades. The success of any cryobiologic protocol depends critically on understanding the fundamentals that(More)
During the last half of the 20th century there have been considerable advancements in mammalian reproductive technologies, including in vitro production of pre-implantation embryos and embryo sexing, and even cloning in some species. However, in most cases, management of non-cryopreserved reproductive cells (i.e., spermatozoa or oocytes) and tissues (i.e.,(More)
Cryopreservation nearly universally depends on the equilibration of cells and tissues with high concentrations of permeating chemicals known as cryoprotective agents, or CPAs. Despite their protective properties, CPAs can cause damage as a result of osmotically-driven cell volume changes, as well as chemical toxicity. In this study, we have used previously(More)
Cell volume and concentration regulation in the presence of changing extracellular environments has been studied for centuries, and recently a general nondimensional model was introduced that encompassed solute and solvent transmembrane flux for a wide variety of solutes and flux mechanisms. Moreover, in many biological applications it is of considerable(More)
Partial phase diagrams are of considerable utility in the development of optimized cryobiological procedures. Recent theoretical predictions of the melting points of ternary solutions of interest to cryobiology have caused us to re-examine measurements that our group made for the ethylene-glycol-sodium chloride-water phase diagram. Here we revisit our(More)
This paper describes the design, modeling, fabrication and characterization MEMS Coulter counter that can detect and monitor the dynamic cell impedance changes in situ as a function of time after mixing isolated cell populations with different extracellular media within 0.3 s from the start of mixing. The novelty of this design is the use of(More)
Stallion spermatozoa exhibit osmotic damage during the cryopreservation process. Recent studies have shown that the addition of cholesterol to spermatozoal membranes increases the cryosurvival of bull, ram and stallion spermatozoa, but the exact mechanism by which added cholesterol improves cryosurvival is not understood. The objectives of this study were(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines including the C57BL/6 genetic background are central to projects such as the Knock-Out Mouse Project, North American Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program, and European Conditional Mouse Mutagenesis Program, which seek to create thousands of mutant mouse strains using ES cells for the production of human disease models in(More)
Cryopreservation of murine spermatozoa would provide an efficient method for preserving important genotypes. However, to date such methods have resulted in low survivals with significant variability. To address this issue, a series of five experiments was performed to determine the cryobiological characteristics of murine spermatozoa. Experiments 1 and 2(More)
Cryobiology is a field with enormous scientific, financial, and even cultural impact. Successful cryopreservation of cells and tissues depends on the equilibration of these materials with high concentrations of permeating chemicals (CPAs) such as glycerol or 1,2 propylene glycol. Because cells and tissues are exposed to highly anisosmotic conditions, the(More)