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Researchers of visual perception have long been interested in the perceived slant of a surface and in the gradients that purportedly specify it. Slant is the angle between the line of sight and the tangent to the planar surface at any point, also called the surface normal. Gradients are the sources of information that grade, or change, with visual angle as(More)
, for example , are known to be about 14,000 years old, but with the recently discovered paintings in the Grotte Chauvet, the origin of representational art appears to have been pushed back even further years ago if not longer. 1 Thus, these paintings date from about the time at which homo sapiens sapiens first appeared in Europe (Nougier, 1969). We should(More)
When an individual moves through a cluttered environment, he or she often fixates an object relatively near his or her path in the middle distance and uses pursuit eye movements to follow it while moving forward. On the basis of previous evidence, either motion fields or displacement fields around the fixated object--two alternative representations of the(More)
In natural vision, information overspecifies the relative distances between objects and their layout in three dimensions. Directed perception applies (Cutting, 1986), rather than direct or indirect perception, because any single source of information (or cue) might be adequate to reveal relative depth (or local depth order), but many are present and useful(More)
In three experiments we tried to mask the motions of human gait. We represented human walkers as a set of 11 computer-generated elements on a display monitor, moving as a nested hierarchy of motions that mimicked the motions of the head and m~jor joints. The walker was seen in sagittal view, facing either right or let~ and walking as if on a treadmill. On(More)
People find their way through cluttered environments with ease and without injury. How do they do it? Two approaches to wayfinding are considered: Differential motion parallax (DMP) is a retinal motion invariant of near and far objects moving against fixation; the information in optical flow (IOF) is a radial pattern of vectors, relying on decomposition of(More)
The discovery that the prehension component of an open-loop, two-fingered reach is largely immune to certain salient pictorial illusions has been used to suggest that humans possess 2 distinct visual systems, 1 that subserves perceptual judgment and 1 that mediates visually controlled action. In this article, the authors present evidence that suggests that(More)
When comparing psychological models a researcher should assess their relative selectivity, scope, and simplicity. The third of these considerations can be measured by the models' parameter counts or equation length, the second by their ability to fit random data, and the first by their differential ability to fit patterned data over random data. These(More)
Viewers can determine the gender of a walker from sagitally projected, dynamic displays of point-lights attached to prominent joints. This article explores three interrelated approaches in search of a biomechanical invariant that viewers might use. The first, an index of torso structure, accounts for the data handsomely but seems inappropriate because it is(More)