James Cutting

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tures throughout our history. The paintings at Niaux, Altamira, and Lascaux (Clottes, 1995; Ruspoli, 1986), for example, are known to be about 14,000 years old, but with the recently discovered paintings in the Grotte Chauvet, the origin of representational art appears to have been pushed back even further (Chauvet, Brunel Deschamps, & Hillaire, 1995;(More)
Researchers of visual perception have long been interested in the perceived slant of a surface and in the gradients that purportedly specify it. Slant is the angle between the line of sight and the tangent to the planar surface at any point, also called the surface normal. Gradients are the sources of information that grade, or change, with visual angle as(More)
In natural vision, information overspecifies the relative distances between objects and their layout in three dimensions. Directed perception applies (Cutting, 1986), rather than direct or indirect perception, because any single source of information (or cue) might be adequate to reveal relative depth (or local depth order), but many are present and useful(More)
Representing motion in a picture is a challenge to artists, scientists, and all other imagemakers. Moreover, it presents a problem that will not go away with electronic and digital media, because often the pedagogical purpose of the representation of motion is more important than the motion itself. All satisfactory solutions evoke motion-for example,(More)
Synthetic versions of human walkers were generated by computer as point-light displays. Previously it had been determined that the natural gaits of males and females differ according to the extent of movement at the shoulder and the hip. These movements were measured and then used to synthesize the stimuli used in the present study. These stimuli are shown(More)
A number of phenomena in speech perception have been called fusion, but little effort has been made to compare these phenomena in a systematic fashion. The present paper examines six of them. All can be exemplified using the syllable /da/ as in dot, and all occur during dichotic listening. In each type of fusion, the robustness of the fused percept is(More)
  • J E Cutting
  • Journal of experimental psychology. Human…
  • 1987
Pictures and cinema seen at a slant present the optics of virtual objects that are distorted and inconsistent with their real counterparts. In particular, it should not be possible for moving objects on slanted film and television screens to be seen as rigid, at least according to rules of linear perspective. Previous approaches to this problem have(More)
People find their way through cluttered environments with ease and without injury. How do they do it? Two approaches to wayfinding are considered: Differential motion parallax (DMP) is a retinal motion invariant of near and far objects moving against fixation; the information in optical flow (IOF) is a radial pattern of vectors, relying on decomposition of(More)
When an individual moves through a cluttered environment, he or she often fixates an object relatively near his or her path in the middle distance and uses pursuit eye movements to follow it while moving forward. On the basis of previous evidence, either motion fields or displacement fields around the fixated object--two alternative representations of the(More)