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other types of relationship. The result is that people's personal networks are homogeneous with regard to many sociodemographic, behavioral, and intrapersonal characteristics. Homophily limits people's social worlds in a way that has powerful implications for the information they receive, the attitudes they form, and the interactions they experience.(More)
Figs (Ficus; ca 750 species) and fig wasps (Agaoninae) are obligate mutualists: all figs are pollinated by agaonines that feed exclusively on figs. This extraordinary symbiosis is the most extreme example of specialization in a plant-pollinator interaction and has fuelled much speculation about co-divergence. The hypothesis that pollinator specialization(More)
It is thought that speciation in phytophagous insects is often due to colonization of novel host plants, because radiations of plant and insect lineages are typically asynchronous. Recent phylogenetic comparisons have supported this model of diversification for both insect herbivores and specialized pollinators. An exceptional case where contemporaneous(More)
Conflict procedures can be used to study the receptor mechanisms underlying the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines and other GABA(A) receptor modulators. In the present study, we first determined the efficacy and binding affinity of the benzodiazepine diazepam and recently synthesized GABA(A) receptor modulators JY-XHe-053, XHe-II-053, HZ-166,(More)
RATIONALE The stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) model is an anxiety model that uses the transient rise in body temperature in response to acute stress. Benzodiazepines produce anxiolytic as well as sedative side effects through nonselective binding to GABA(A) receptor subunits. The GABA(A) receptor alpha(1) subunit is associated with sedation, whereas the(More)
Benzodiazepine pharmacology has led to greater insight into the neural mechanisms underlying learning and anxiety. The synthesis of new compounds capable of modulating responses produced by these receptors has been made possible by the development of an isoform model of the GABA(A)/benzodiazepine receptor complex. In the current experiment, rats were(More)
Recent research using genetically modified mice has pointed to the specific contribution of individual receptor subtypes to the various effects of benzodiazepines. The aim of this study was to examine the relative significance of alpha(1)-containing GABA(A) receptors in the effects of modulators at the benzodiazepine site in the elevated plus-maze (EPM)(More)
The radiochemical synthesis and pharmacological properties are described of [3H]RY 80 (ethyl-8-acetylene-5, 6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5a][1, 4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate, [ethyl-3H]). This compound is one of a series of 8-substituted imidazobenzodiazepines that exhibits both high affinity and selectivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A(More)
The ethyl ester of beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid has a high affinity for benzodiazepine receptors in the brain. In the rhesus monkey this substance produces an acute behavioral syndrome characterized by dramatic elevations in heart rate, blood pressure, plasma cortisol, and catecholamines. The effects are blocked by benzodiazepines and the specific(More)
RATIONALE Positive modulators of the benzodiazepine/GABA(A) receptor complex can heighten aggressive behavior; the GABA(A)/alpha(1) subunit may play a critical role in benzodiazepine-modulated aggressive behavior. OBJECTIVE The carboline derivatives, beta-CCt and 3-PBC, antagonists with preferential action at the GABA(A) receptors with alpha(1) subunits,(More)