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Mammalian cells accumulate reduced folates and methotrexate, a folate antagonist, through the reduced-folate carrier (RFC) (Goldman, I.D., Lichtenstein, N.S., and Oliverio, V.T. (1968) J. Biol. Chem. 243, 5007-5017). This study describes the isolation and expression of a cDNA clone that restores RFC activity to human breast cancer cells defective in this(More)
Computers are an important part of modern education, yet many schoolchildren lack access to a computer at home. We test whether this impedes educational achievement by conducting the largest-ever field experiment that randomly provides free home computers to students. Although computer ownership and use increased substantially, we find no effects on any(More)
The effect of interleukin 6 (IL-6) on normal and human mammary carcinoma epithelial cells was studied. IL-6 inhibited the growth of estrogen receptor-positive [ER(+)] breast cancer cell lines, which underwent apoptosis with prolonged treatment. In contrast, ER(-) breast cancer cell lines were resistant to IL-6-mediated growth inhibition. By examining the(More)
BACKGROUND Radiographic bone tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is frequently reported. The error associated with measuring tunnels on radiographs has not been established and may be substantial. HYPOTHESIS Measurement error influences interpretation of bone tunnel enlargement. STUDY DESIGN Cohort study (Diagnosis); Level(More)
The glutathione S-transferase pi gene (GST pi) is highly expressed in estrogen receptor negative (ER-) but not expressed in ER+ human breast cancer cell lines. To define regulatory mechanisms of GST pi gene expression, we analyzed both the activity of the GST pi promoter and the posttranscriptional fate of GST pi RNA sequences in three ER+ and three ER-(More)
Many online service businesses are beginning to charge fees for services that they used to provide for free. It is unclear whether consumers are ready to embrace this practice. This study explores consumer attitudes toward fee-based online services. The results of the study indicate that consumers' willingness to pay for online services is likely to be(More)
Boys are doing worse in school than are girls, which has been dubbed "the Boy Crisis." An analysis of the latest data on educational outcomes among boys and girls reveals extensive disparities in grades, reading and writing test scores, and other measurable educational outcomes, and these disparities exist across family resources and race. Focusing on(More)
Many online service businesses are beginning to charge fees for services that they used to provide for free. It is unclear whether consumers are ready to embrace this practice. This study explores the critical issue of consumer attitudes toward fee-based online services. The results of the study indicate that consumers' willingness to pay for online(More)