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Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) may participate in cellular responses to various stimuli including hemodynamic forces and act as signal transduction messengers. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs) were subjected to laminar shear flow with shear stress of 15, 25, or 40 dynes/cm2 in a parallel plate flow chamber to demonstrate the(More)
Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly subjected to flow-induced shear stress. Although the effects of shear stress on ECs are well known, the intracellular signal mechanisms remain largely unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have recently been suggested to act as intracellular second messengers. The potential role of ROS in shear-induced gene(More)
Endothelial cells (ECs) subjected to shear stress constantly release nitric oxide (NO). The effect of NO on shear stress-induced endothelial responses was examined. ECs subjected to shear stress induced a transient and shear force-dependent increase in early growth response-1 (Egr-1) mRNA levels. Treatment of ECs with an NO donor,(More)
Large variation in tendon size between individuals makes hamstring graft diameter for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction unpredictable. Inadequate graft diameter may necessitate an alternative source of tissue requiring pre-operative planning. The purpose of this study was to determine whether magnetic resonance image (MRI) measurements and(More)
BACKGROUND Radiographic bone tunnel enlargement after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is frequently reported. The error associated with measuring tunnels on radiographs has not been established and may be substantial. HYPOTHESIS Measurement error influences interpretation of bone tunnel enlargement. STUDY DESIGN Cohort study (Diagnosis); Level(More)
Hypoxia induces endothelial dysfunction that results in a series of cardiovascular injuries. Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) has been indicated as a common theme in vascular injury. Here we demonstrates that in bovine aortic endothelial cells (ECs) subjected to hypoxia (PO(2) approximately 23 mmHg), rapidly increased Egr-1 mRNA expression which peaked(More)
UNLABELLED We compared two routes for myocardial delivery of therapeutics, transendocardial (TE) delivery with an intramyocardial injection catheter, and retrograde coronary venous (RCV) delivery with a balloon occlusion catheter in the interventricular vein. METHODS TE and RCV injection of 15 microM, neutron-activatable microspheres was compared in(More)
Recently reported flip-flop structures achieved small delay between the latest point ofdata arrival and output transition. Typical representatives of these structures are sense amplifier-based flipflop (SAFF), hybrid latch flip-flop (HLFF) and semi-dynamic flipflop (SDFF) [4,8, 91. Hybrid flip-flops outperform reported senseamplifier-based designs, because(More)