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Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) may regulate endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. Evidence indicates that CRF-like immunoreactivity (CRF-LI) is widely distributed throughout the CNS. In this study, the distribution of CRF-LI was determined in 36 rat brain regions by combined radioimmunoassay-micropunch dissection techniques and the(More)
To evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we measured adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and cortisol responses following administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in 8 combat veterans with chronic PTSD. The PTSD patients had a significantly lower ACTH response to CRH(More)
Blockade of D2 family dopamine receptors (D2Rs) is a fundamental property of antipsychotics, and the degree of striatal D2R occupancy has been related to antipsychotic and motor effects of these drugs. Recent studies suggest the D2R occupancy of antipsychotics may differ in extrastriatal regions compared with the dorsal striatum. We studied this issue in(More)
Hyperactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is more common in elderly depression than in younger cohorts and glucocorticoids are known to influence serotonergic systems. The current study explores the interaction of glucocorticoids with aging on serotonin transporter expression and function. Continuous infusions of dexamethasone (26 days)(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of infant medication exposure through breast-feeding during maternal treatment with paroxetine. METHOD Breast milk and paired maternal and infant sera were collected after 10 days of maternal treatment with paroxetine at a stable daily dose (10-50 mg/day). All samples were analyzed by means(More)
This paper reviews progress made in testing the idea that depression-related behavioral changes can arise from hyperactivity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons which consequently inhibits activity of mesocorticolimbic dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmentum (VTA) via release of galanin from terminals on LC axons in VTA. Results from pre-clinical testing are(More)
OBJECTIVE Basal levels of glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, are generally unaltered in bipolar disorder. However, neuroendocrine tests of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function such as the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) are frequently abnormal. Neuropsychological impairment is well documented in healthy volunteers after administration of(More)
The aim of the current study was to determine the degree to which patients with panic disorder develop tolerance to subjective and physiological effects of benzodiazepine after chronic treatment with alprazolam. Response to acute administration of diazepam was assessed in 19 panic disorder patients receiving chronic treatment with alprazolam and 23(More)
To determine whether structural brain abnormalities in patients with depression are related to cortisol state, we examined the relationship between the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 40 inpatients with severe depression referred for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Prior to ECT, 27 (68%) of the patients(More)
Neurofilament light (NFL) proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are a marker of neuronal damage, especially subcortical axonal injury and white matter disease. Subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have shown elevated levels of CSF NFL as compared to controls. However, the presence of the APOE ε4 allele, an established risk factor for AD, was not found to(More)