James C Weisshaar

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Docking and fusion of single proteoliposomes reconstituted with full-length v-SNAREs (synaptobrevin) into planar lipid bilayers containing binary t-SNAREs (anchored syntaxin associated with SNAP25) was observed in real time by wide-field fluorescence microscopy. This enabled separate measurement of the docking rate k(dock) and the unimolecular fusion rate(More)
Quantitative spatial distributions of ribosomes (S2-YFP) and RNA polymerase (RNAP; β'-yGFP) in live Escherichia coli are measured by superresolution fluorescence microscopy. In moderate growth conditions, nucleoid-ribosome segregation is strong, and RNAP localizes to the nucleoid lobes. The mean copy numbers per cell are 4600 RNAPs and 55,000 ribosomes.(More)
Facile diffusion of globular proteins within a cytoplasm that is dense with biopolymers is essential to normal cellular biochemical activity and growth. Remarkably, Escherichia coli grows in minimal medium over a wide range of external osmolalities (0.03 to 1.8 osmol). The mean cytoplasmic biopolymer volume fraction ((phi)) for such adapted cells ranges(More)
The first in vivo measurements of a protein diffusion coefficient versus cytoplasmic biopolymer volume fraction are presented. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching yields the effective diffusion coefficient on a 1-mum-length scale of green fluorescent protein within the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli grown in rich medium. Resuspension into hyperosmotic(More)
Natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) provide prototypes for the design of unconventional antimicrobial agents. Existing bulk assays measure AMP activity but do not provide details of the growth-halting mechanism. We use fluorescence microscopy to directly observe the attack of the human antimicrobial peptide LL-37 on single Escherichia coli cells in real(More)
Superresolution fluorescence microscopy is used to locate single copies of RNA polymerase (RNAP) in live Escherichia coli and track their diffusive motion. On a timescale of 0.1-1 s, most copies separate remarkably cleanly into two diffusive states. The "slow" RNAPs, which move indistinguishably from DNA loci, are assigned to specifically bound copies (with(More)
An in vitro fusion assay uses fluorescence microscopy of labeled lipids to monitor single v-SNARE vesicle docking and fusion events on a planar lipid bilayer containing t-SNAREs. For vesicles and bilayer comprising phosphatidylcholine (POPC, 84-85% by mol) and phosphatidylserine (DOPS, 15% by mol), previous work demonstrated prompt, full fusion (tau(fus) =(More)
By labeling the β' subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP), we used fluorescence microscopy to study the spatial distribution and diffusive motion of RNAP in live Escherichia coli cells for the first time. With a 40-ms time resolution, the spatial distribution exhibits two or three narrow peaks of 300- to 600-nm full width at half-maximum that maintain their(More)
In vitro vesicle fusion assays that monitor lipid mixing between t-SNARE and v-SNARE vesicles in bulk solution exhibit remarkably slow fusion on the nonphysiological timescale of tens of minutes to several hours. Here, single-vesicle, fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assays cleanly separate docking and fusion steps for individual vesicle pairs(More)