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In recent years, a handful of model systems from the basal metazoan phylum Cnidaria have emerged to challenge long-held views on the evolution of animal complexity. The most-recent, and in many ways most-promising addition to this group is the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. The remarkable amenability of this species to laboratory manipulation(More)
The prevalence of naturally occurring hepatitis C virus (HCV) variants that are less sensitive to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) inhibitors has not been fully characterized. We used population sequence analysis to assess the frequency of such variants in plasma samples from 3,447 DAA-naive patients with genotype 1 HCV. In general, HCV variants with(More)
BACKGROUND Telaprevir (TVR), a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor, has been approved to treat genotype 1 HCV. To understand the clinical impact of TVR-resistant variants, we analyzed samples from patients in phase 3 clinical trials to determine the frequency and retention of TVR-resistant variants in patients who did not achieve sustained(More)
The lined sea anemone Edwardsiella lineata has evolved a derived parasitic life history that includes a novel body plan adapted for life inside its ctenophore hosts. Reputedly its sole host is the sea walnut, Mnemiopsis leidyi, a voracious planktivore and a seasonally abundant member of many pelagic ecosystems. However, we have observed substantially higher(More)
Intronic sequences represent a large fraction of most eukaryotic genomes, and they are known to play a critical role in genome evolution. Based on the conserved location of introns, conserved sequence within introns, and direct experimental evidence, it is becoming increasingly clear that introns perform important functions such as modulating gene(More)
Evolutionarily conserved gene clusters are interesting for two reasons: (1) they may illuminate ancient events in genome evolution and (2) they may reveal ongoing stabilizing selection; that is, the conservation of gene clusters may have functional significance. To test if the Wnt family of signaling factors exhibits conserved clustering in basal metazoans(More)
The Rel/NF-κB and NFAT families of transcription factors are related through an N-terminal DNA-binding domain called the Rel Homology domain (RHD). Neither the RHD nor the NF-κB pathway has been identified in a basal (i.e., nonbilaterian) animal phylum. Using genomic and cDNA databases, we have identified two RHD domain-containing proteins from the(More)
Distinguishing natural versus anthropogenic dispersal of organisms is essential for determining the native range of a species and implementing an effective conservation strategy. For cryptogenic species with limited historical records, molecular data can help to identify introductions. Nematostella vectensis is a small, burrowing estuarine sea anemone found(More)
Background: NF-kB is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that controls the expression of genes involved in many key organismal processes, including innate immunity, development, and stress responses. NF-kB proteins contain a highly conserved DNA-binding/dimerization domain called the Rel homology domain. Methods/Principal Findings: We(More)