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Cell surfaces in the immune system are richly equipped with a complex mixture of glycans, which can be recognized by diverse glycan-binding proteins. The Siglecs are a family of sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins that are thought to promote cell-cell interactions and regulate the functions of cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems(More)
Here we describe a glycan microarray constructed by using standard robotic microarray printing technology to couple amine functionalized glycans to an amino-reactive glass slide. The array comprises 200 synthetic and natural glycan sequences representing major glycan structures of glycoproteins and glycolipids. The array has remarkable utility for profiling(More)
The hemagglutinin (HA) structure at 2.9 angstrom resolution, from a highly pathogenic Vietnamese H5N1 influenza virus, is more related to the 1918 and other human H1 HAs than to a 1997 duck H5 HA. Glycan microarray analysis of this Viet04 HA reveals an avian alpha2-3 sialic acid receptor binding preference. Introduction of mutations that can convert H1(More)
Genetic and biologic observations suggest that pigs may serve as "mixing vessels" for the generation of human-avian influenza A virus reassortants, similar to those responsible for the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. Here we demonstrate a structural basis for this hypothesis. Cell surface receptors for both human and avian influenza viruses were identified in the(More)
The ST6Gal sialyltransferase controls production of the Siaalpha2-6Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (Sia6LacNAc) trisaccharide, which is the ligand for the lectin CD22. Binding of CD22 to Sia6LacNAc is implicated in regulating lymphocyte adhesion and activation. We have investigated mice that lack ST6Gal and report that they are viable, yet exhibit hallmarks of severe(More)
The receptor specificity of 56 H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates from various animal species has been determined to test the relevance of receptor specificity to the ecology of influenza virus. The results show that the receptor specificity of both H2 and H3 isolates evaluated for sialic acid linkage specificity and inhibition of hemagglutination by horse(More)
Influenza A virus specificity for the host is mediated by the viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA), which binds to receptors containing glycans with terminal sialic acids. Avian viruses preferentially bind to alpha2-3-linked sialic acids on receptors of intestinal epithelial cells, whereas human viruses are specific for the alpha2-6 linkage on(More)
Adaptation of avian influenza viruses for replication and transmission in the human host is believed to require mutations in the hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA) which enable binding to human alpha2-6 sialosides and concomitant reduction in affinity for avian alpha2-3 linked sialosides. Here, we show by glycan microarray analyses that the two mutations(More)
CD22 is a negative regulator of B cell signaling, an activity modulated by its interaction with glycan ligands containing alpha2-6-linked sialic acids. B cells deficient in the enzyme (ST6Gal I) that forms the CD22 ligand show suppressed BCR signaling. Here we report that mice deficient in both CD22 and its ligand (Cd22-/- St6gal1-/- mice) showed restored B(More)
The Gal beta 1,3(4)GlcNAc alpha 2,3-sialyltransferase forms the NeuAc alpha 2,3Gal beta 1,3(4)GlcNAc sequences found in terminal carbohydrate groups of glycoproteins and glycolipids. High energy collision-induced dissociation analysis of tryptic peptides from only 300 pmol of the purified Gal beta 1,3(4)GlcNAc alpha 2,3-sialyltransferase provided 25% of the(More)