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The hemagglutinin (HA) structure at 2.9 angstrom resolution, from a highly pathogenic Vietnamese H5N1 influenza virus, is more related to the 1918 and other human H1 HAs than to a 1997 duck H5 HA. Glycan microarray analysis of this Viet04 HA reveals an avian alpha2-3 sialic acid receptor binding preference. Introduction of mutations that can convert H1(More)
Here we describe a glycan microarray constructed by using standard robotic microarray printing technology to couple amine functionalized glycans to an amino-reactive glass slide. The array comprises 200 synthetic and natural glycan sequences representing major glycan structures of glycoproteins and glycolipids. The array has remarkable utility for profiling(More)
Adaptation of avian influenza viruses for replication and transmission in the human host is believed to require mutations in the hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA) which enable binding to human alpha2-6 sialosides and concomitant reduction in affinity for avian alpha2-3 linked sialosides. Here, we show by glycan microarray analyses that the two mutations(More)
Antiangiogenesis therapies are now part of the standard repertoire of cancer therapies, but the mechanisms for the proliferation and survival of endothelial cells are not fully understood. Although endothelial cells are covered with a glycocalyx, little is known about how endothelial glycosylation regulates endothelial functions. Here, we show that(More)
The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 and 128 with Man(9) at 1.65 and 1.29 angstrom resolution,(More)
Recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammation is mediated in part by endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1), which is expressed on activated endothelial cells of the blood vessel walls. ELAM-1 is a member of the LEC-CAM or selectin family of adhesion molecules that contain a lectin motif thought to recognize carbohydrate ligands. In this(More)
Sialyltransferase (Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc alpha 2,6 sialyltransferase) was localized by immunoelectron microscopy in rat liver hepatocytes using affinity-purified antibodies. Immunoreactivity for sialyltransferase was found in the Golgi apparatus, where it was restricted to an interconnected system consisting of the trans-cisternae and the trans-tubular(More)
We describe a simple method for efficiently labeling cell-surface sialic acid-containing glycans on living animal cells. The method uses mild periodate oxidation to generate an aldehyde on sialic acids, followed by aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation with a suitable tag. Aniline catalysis dramatically accelerates oxime ligation, allowing use of low(More)
BACKGROUND MUC16 is a cell surface mucin expressed at high levels by epithelial ovarian tumors. Following proteolytic cleavage, cell surface MUC16 (csMUC16) is shed in the extracellular milieu and is detected in the serum of cancer patients as the tumor marker CA125. csMUC16 acts as an adhesion molecule and facilitates peritoneal metastasis of ovarian(More)
CD22 (Siglec-2) is a key regulator of B cell signaling whose function is modulated by interaction with extracellular glycan ligands mediated through its N-terminal Ig domain. Its preferred ligand is the sequence Sia alpha2-6Gal that is abundantly expressed on N-linked glycans of B cell glycoproteins, and by binding to CD22 in cis causes CD22 to appear(More)