James C Paulson

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The hemagglutinin (HA) structure at 2.9 angstrom resolution, from a highly pathogenic Vietnamese H5N1 influenza virus, is more related to the 1918 and other human H1 HAs than to a 1997 duck H5 HA. Glycan microarray analysis of this Viet04 HA reveals an avian alpha2-3 sialic acid receptor binding preference. Introduction of mutations that can convert H1(More)
Cell surfaces in the immune system are richly equipped with a complex mixture of glycans, which can be recognized by diverse glycan-binding proteins. The Siglecs are a family of sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins that are thought to promote cell-cell interactions and regulate the functions of cells in the innate and adaptive immune systems(More)
Here we describe a glycan microarray constructed by using standard robotic microarray printing technology to couple amine functionalized glycans to an amino-reactive glass slide. The array comprises 200 synthetic and natural glycan sequences representing major glycan structures of glycoproteins and glycolipids. The array has remarkable utility for profiling(More)
Influenza A virus specificity for the host is mediated by the viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA), which binds to receptors containing glycans with terminal sialic acids. Avian viruses preferentially bind to alpha2-3-linked sialic acids on receptors of intestinal epithelial cells, whereas human viruses are specific for the alpha2-6 linkage on(More)
The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. However, several of the recently identified PGT broadly neutralizing antibodies appear to interact directly with the HIV glycan coat. Crystal structures of antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) PGT 127 and 128 with Man(9) at 1.65 and 1.29 angstrom resolution,(More)
Genetic and biologic observations suggest that pigs may serve as "mixing vessels" for the generation of human-avian influenza A virus reassortants, similar to those responsible for the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. Here we demonstrate a structural basis for this hypothesis. Cell surface receptors for both human and avian influenza viruses were identified in the(More)
Sialyltransferase (Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc alpha 2,6 sialyltransferase) was localized by immunoelectron microscopy in rat liver hepatocytes using affinity-purified antibodies. Immunoreactivity for sialyltransferase was found in the Golgi apparatus, where it was restricted to an interconnected system consisting of the trans-cisternae and the trans-tubular(More)
The binding of influenza virus to erythrocytes and host cells is mediated by the interaction of the viral hemagglutinin (H) with cell surface receptors containing sialic acid (SA). The specificity of this interaction for 19 human and animal influenza isolates was examined using human erythrocytes enzymatically modified to contain cell surface(More)
The receptor specificity of 56 H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates from various animal species has been determined to test the relevance of receptor specificity to the ecology of influenza virus. The results show that the receptor specificity of both H2 and H3 isolates evaluated for sialic acid linkage specificity and inhibition of hemagglutination by horse(More)
Aquatic birds harbor diverse influenza A viruses and are a major viral reservoir in nature. The recent discovery of influenza viruses of a new H17N10 subtype in Central American fruit bats suggests that other New World species may similarly carry divergent influenza viruses. Using consensus degenerate RT-PCR, we identified a novel influenza A virus,(More)