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Today's surface ocean is saturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are reducing ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, and thus the level of calcium carbonate saturation. Experimental evidence suggests that if these trends continue, key marine organisms--such as corals and some plankton--will(More)
Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2) is altering the seawater chemistry of the world's oceans with consequences for marine biota. Elevated partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2) is causing the calcium carbonate saturation horizon to shoal in many regions, particularly in high latitudes and regions that intersect with pronounced hypoxic zones. The(More)
Surface nutrient concentrations in the Southern Ocean are an important indicator of the atmosphere ocean chemical balance that played a key role in ice-age reduction of atmospheric pC0, and would play a role in any Fe fertilization scenario for increasing oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO,. The response of the ocean and atmosphere to a scenario of extreme(More)
[1] A suite of standard ocean hydrographic and circulation metrics are applied to the equilibrium physical solutions from 13 global carbon models participating in phase 2 of the Ocean Carbon-cycle Model Intercomparison Project (OCMIP-2). Model-data comparisons are presented for sea surface temperature and salinity, seasonal mixed layer depth, meridional(More)
Pharmacodynamic effects and plasma levels of diazepam were studied in healthy male volunteers at different dose levels. Responses to diazepam were quantified, using instruments which measured body sway (statometry) and psychomotor performance (stressalyser tests). High dose-related correlations were obtained between drug-induced changes in test parameters(More)
Biogeosciences Discussions This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Biogeosciences (BG). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in BG if available. Abstract To study ocean acidification and the carbon cycle, marine scientists often use two measured or modeled carbonate system variables to compute others. These carbon-ate(More)
[1] Results are presented of export production, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and dissolved oxygen simulated by 12 global ocean models participating in the second phase of the Ocean Carbon-cycle Model Intercomparison Project. A common, simple biogeochemical model is utilized in different coarse-resolution ocean circulation models. The model mean (±1s)(More)
Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socioeconomic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists(More)