Learn More
The astrocyte-neuronal lactate-shuttle hypothesis posits that lactate released from astrocytes into the extracellular space is metabolized by neurons. The lactate released should alter extracellular pH (pHe), and changes in pH in central chemosensory regions of the brainstem stimulate ventilation. Therefore, we assessed the impact of disrupting the lactate(More)
The precise mechanism whereby continuous high-frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus ameliorates motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is unknown. We examined the effects of high-frequency stimulation of regions dorsal to and within the subthalamic nucleus on dopamine efflux in the striatum of urethane-anaesthetized rats using constant(More)
The likely processes of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) were identified many years ago (apnea, failed arousal, failed autoresuscitation, etc.). The neurophysiological basis of these processes and the neurophysiological reasons some infants die of SIDS and others do not are, however, only emerging now. We reviewed recent studies that have shed light(More)
Sites of central CO2 chemosensitivity were investigated in isolated brain stems from Rana catesbeiana tadpoles and frogs. Respiratory neurograms were made from cranial nerve (CN) 7 and spinal nerve 2. Superfusion of the brain stem with hypercapnic artificial cerebrospinal fluid elicited increased fictive lung ventilation. The effect of focal perfusion of(More)
We compared the response to hypercapnia (10%) in neurons and astrocytes among a distinct area of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), the mediocaudal RTN (mcRTN), and more intermediate and rostral RTN areas (irRTN) in medullary brain slices from neonatal rats. Hypercapnic acidosis (HA) caused pH(o) to decline from 7.45 to 7.15 and a maintained intracellular(More)
Wastewater effluent contains a variety of estrogenic compounds that vary in potency, but each of which contributes to the overall estrogenicity of the effluent. We hypothesized that the effects of mixtures of estrogens on reproduction in pair breeding medaka (Oryzias latipes) could be predicted by their relative estrogenicity. Relative estrogenicity was(More)
BACKGROUND Noradrenergic function has been linked to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and might have a role in mediating sleep disturbances of the disorder. Our objective was to relate a peripheral manifestation of noradrenergic function, sympathetic nervous system activity as indexed by heart rate variability during sleep, to the development of PTSD in(More)
Maternal smoking is a risk factor for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). We hypothesized that pre-natal exposure to nicotine would result in abnormalities of ventilatory activity in newborns. Neonatal rats which had been exposed to nicotine had significantly lower minute ventilation breathing air and hypoxic gas mixtures than did control animals. In(More)
We have developed an intraoral bipolar surface electrode for the genioglossus muscle. The electrode, made from an athletic mouthguard and dental impression material, was fitted to the lower teeth. Electrode wires, bared at the tip, were positioned on the bottom of the mouthpiece to lie in contact with the superior surface of the genioglossus just behind the(More)
Hypoxia causes arousal. Therefore, we hypothesized that hypoxia activates the human somatomotor system and should augment tremor. We determined the effects of hypoxia, PET(O2) = 45+/-2.2 mm Hg, hypocapnia, and the hypocapnic-hypoxic interaction on finger tremor during elastic loading. A total of 12 healthy male volunteers were studied during five(More)