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The precise mechanism whereby continuous high-frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus ameliorates motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is unknown. We examined the effects of high-frequency stimulation of regions dorsal to and within the subthalamic nucleus on dopamine efflux in the striatum of urethane-anaesthetized rats using constant(More)
We used epifluorescence microscopy and a voltage-sensitive dye, di-8-ANEPPS, to study changes in membrane potential during hypercapnia with or without synaptic blockade in chemosensory brain stem nuclei: the locus coeruleus (LC), the nucleus of the solitary tract, lateral paragigantocellularis nucleus, raphé pallidus, and raphé obscurus and, in putative(More)
Sites of central CO2 chemosensitivity were investigated in isolated brain stems from Rana catesbeiana tadpoles and frogs. Respiratory neurograms were made from cranial nerve (CN) 7 and spinal nerve 2. Superfusion of the brain stem with hypercapnic artificial cerebrospinal fluid elicited increased fictive lung ventilation. The effect of focal perfusion of(More)
The astrocyte-neuronal lactate-shuttle hypothesis posits that lactate released from astrocytes into the extracellular space is metabolized by neurons. The lactate released should alter extracellular pH (pHe), and changes in pH in central chemosensory regions of the brainstem stimulate ventilation. Therefore, we assessed the impact of disrupting the lactate(More)
Central CO(2) chemoreception and the role of carbonic anhydrase were assessed in brain stems from Rana catesbeiana tadpoles and frogs. Buccal and lung rhythms were recorded from cranial nerve VII and spinal nerve II during normocapnia and hypercapnia before and after treatment with 25 microM acetazolamide. The lung response to acetazolamide mimicked the(More)
We compared the response to hypercapnia (10%) in neurons and astrocytes among a distinct area of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), the mediocaudal RTN (mcRTN), and more intermediate and rostral RTN areas (irRTN) in medullary brain slices from neonatal rats. Hypercapnic acidosis (HA) caused pH(o) to decline from 7.45 to 7.15 and a maintained intracellular(More)
BACKGROUND Noradrenergic function has been linked to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and might have a role in mediating sleep disturbances of the disorder. Our objective was to relate a peripheral manifestation of noradrenergic function, sympathetic nervous system activity as indexed by heart rate variability during sleep, to the development of PTSD in(More)
Many articles in this section of Comprehensive Physiology are concerned with the development and function of a central pattern generator (CPG) for the control of breathing in vertebrate animals. The action of the respiratory CPG is extensively modified by cortical and other descending influences as well as by feedback from peripheral sensory systems. The(More)
We examined intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a CO(2)-sensitive site, and the hypoglossal nucleus, a nonchemosensitive site, during development (postnatal days 2-18) in rats. Respiratory acidosis [10% CO(2), extracellular pH (pH(o)) 7.18] caused acidification without pH(i) recovery in the RTN at all ages. In the(More)
Elevated levels of carbon dioxide increase lung ventilation in Helix aspersa. The hypercapnic response originates from a discrete respiratory chemosensory region in the dorsal subesophageal ganglia that contains CO(2)-sensitive neurons. We tested the hypothesis that pH-dependent inhibition of potassium channels in neurons in this region mediated the(More)