James C Leiter

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We compared the response to hypercapnia (10%) in neurons and astrocytes among a distinct area of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), the mediocaudal RTN (mcRTN), and more intermediate and rostral RTN areas (irRTN) in medullary brain slices from neonatal rats. Hypercapnic acidosis (HA) caused pH(o) to decline from 7.45 to 7.15 and a maintained intracellular(More)
The astrocyte-neuronal lactate-shuttle hypothesis posits that lactate released from astrocytes into the extracellular space is metabolized by neurons. The lactate released should alter extracellular pH (pHe), and changes in pH in central chemosensory regions of the brainstem stimulate ventilation. Therefore, we assessed the impact of disrupting the lactate(More)
The precise mechanism whereby continuous high-frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus ameliorates motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is unknown. We examined the effects of high-frequency stimulation of regions dorsal to and within the subthalamic nucleus on dopamine efflux in the striatum of urethane-anaesthetized rats using constant(More)
The likely processes of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) were identified many years ago (apnea, failed arousal, failed autoresuscitation, etc.). The neurophysiological basis of these processes and the neurophysiological reasons some infants die of SIDS and others do not are, however, only emerging now. We reviewed recent studies that have shed light(More)
Maternal smoking is a risk factor for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). We hypothesized that pre-natal exposure to nicotine would result in abnormalities of ventilatory activity in newborns. Neonatal rats which had been exposed to nicotine had significantly lower minute ventilation breathing air and hypoxic gas mixtures than did control animals. In(More)
Sites of central CO2 chemosensitivity were investigated in isolated brain stems from Rana catesbeiana tadpoles and frogs. Respiratory neurograms were made from cranial nerve (CN) 7 and spinal nerve 2. Superfusion of the brain stem with hypercapnic artificial cerebrospinal fluid elicited increased fictive lung ventilation. The effect of focal perfusion of(More)
We compared the response to hypercapnia (10%) in both neurons and astrocytes between a distinct area of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), the medio-caudal RTN (mcRTN) and more intermediate and rostral RTN areas (irRTN) in medullary brain slices from neonatal rats. Exposure to hypercapnic acidosis (HA) caused pHo to decline from 7.45 to 7.15 and caused a(More)
An increase in PCO(2) in the arterial blood triggers immediate release of ATP from the ventral chemosensory site(s) on the surface of the medulla oblongata. Systemic hypoxia in anesthetized rats was also associated with increased ATP release on the ventral medullary surface. During both hypoxia and hypercapnia, ATP and possibly other gliotransmitters(More)
The ventilatory response to CO2 changes as a function of neonatal development. In rats, a ventilatory response to CO2 is present in the first 5 days of life, but this ventilatory response to CO2 wanes and reaches its lowest point around postnatal day 8. Subsequently, the ventilatory response to CO2 rises towards adult levels. Similar patterns in the(More)
Wastewater effluent contains a variety of estrogenic compounds that vary in potency, but each of which contributes to the overall estrogenicity of the effluent. We hypothesized that the effects of mixtures of estrogens on reproduction in pair breeding medaka (Oryzias latipes) could be predicted by their relative estrogenicity. Relative estrogenicity was(More)