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Wastewater effluent contains a variety of estrogenic compounds that vary in potency, but each of which contributes to the overall estrogenicity of the effluent. We hypothesized that the effects of mixtures of estrogens on reproduction in pair breeding medaka (Oryzias latipes) could be predicted by their relative estrogenicity. Relative estrogenicity was(More)
The astrocyte-neuronal lactate-shuttle hypothesis posits that lactate released from astrocytes into the extracellular space is metabolized by neurons. The lactate released should alter extracellular pH (pHe), and changes in pH in central chemosensory regions of the brainstem stimulate ventilation. Therefore, we assessed the impact of disrupting the lactate(More)
The precise mechanism whereby continuous high-frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus ameliorates motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is unknown. We examined the effects of high-frequency stimulation of regions dorsal to and within the subthalamic nucleus on dopamine efflux in the striatum of urethane-anaesthetized rats using constant(More)
Sites of central CO2 chemosensitivity were investigated in isolated brain stems from Rana catesbeiana tadpoles and frogs. Respiratory neurograms were made from cranial nerve (CN) 7 and spinal nerve 2. Superfusion of the brain stem with hypercapnic artificial cerebrospinal fluid elicited increased fictive lung ventilation. The effect of focal perfusion of(More)
We compared the response to hypercapnia (10%) in neurons and astrocytes among a distinct area of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), the mediocaudal RTN (mcRTN), and more intermediate and rostral RTN areas (irRTN) in medullary brain slices from neonatal rats. Hypercapnic acidosis (HA) caused pH(o) to decline from 7.45 to 7.15 and a maintained intracellular(More)
BACKGROUND Noradrenergic function has been linked to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and might have a role in mediating sleep disturbances of the disorder. Our objective was to relate a peripheral manifestation of noradrenergic function, sympathetic nervous system activity as indexed by heart rate variability during sleep, to the development of PTSD in(More)
We used 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyflourescein (BCECF), a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, to study intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation in neurons in CO(2) chemoreceptor and nonchemoreceptor regions in the pulmonate, terrestrial snail, Helix aspersa. We studied pH(i) during hypercapnic acidosis, after ammonia prepulse, and during isohydric(More)
Many articles in this section of Comprehensive Physiology are concerned with the development and function of a central pattern generator (CPG) for the control of breathing in vertebrate animals. The action of the respiratory CPG is extensively modified by cortical and other descending influences as well as by feedback from peripheral sensory systems. The(More)
Central CO(2) chemoreception and the role of carbonic anhydrase were assessed in brain stems from Rana catesbeiana tadpoles and frogs. Buccal and lung rhythms were recorded from cranial nerve VII and spinal nerve II during normocapnia and hypercapnia before and after treatment with 25 microM acetazolamide. The lung response to acetazolamide mimicked the(More)
The Journal of Applied Physiology (ISSN-8750-7587) is published online twice monthly and bound once in print monthly (two volumes per year) by the American Physiological Society, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814-3991 and online at www.jap.org (ISSN 1522-1601). Subscription Prices (postpaid). For institutional print and online pricing, please see The(More)