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A "variational" theory, which gives a least upper bound to the rate of a chemical reaction, is presented. The reaction is represented by the motion of a point in phase space across a trial surface dividing the "initial" and" final" chemical states. The trial surface is well defined in regions of phase space where interactions causing reaction are(More)
BACKGROUND The overarching goal of this project is to establish a patient-derived bladder cancer xenograft (PDX) platform, annotated with deep sequencing and patient clinical information, to accelerate the development of new treatment options for bladder cancer patients. Herein, we describe the creation, initial characterization and use of the platform for(More)
This report summarizes the key results and conceptual findings from a three year research program on hydrocarbon formation and oxidation mechanisms in spark-ignition engines. Research was carried out in four areas: laminar flame quenching experimental and analytical studies; quench layer studies in a spark-ignition engine using a rapid-acting gas sampling(More)
According to the underlying concept of the rate-controlled constrained-equilibrium (RCCE) method, the relaxation of a complex reacting system towards the final equilibrium state is governed by a set of active and passive constraints imposed by the internal dynamics of the system, which is considerably smaller in dimension than the original sys tem. A set of(More)
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