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Studies using primary cultures of astrocytes have made essential contributions to the understanding of astrocytic functions and neuronal-astrocytic interactions. The purposes of this article are to (i) outline principles and methodologies used in the preparation of such cultures and caveats for the interpretation of the observations made; (ii) summarize(More)
The substrate and cofactor requirements and some kinetic properties of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC; EC 1.2.4.2, EC 2.3.1.61, and EC 1.6.4.3) in purified rat brain mitochondria were studied. Brain mitochondrial KGDHC showed absolute requirement for alpha-ketoglutarate, CoA and NAD, and only partial requirement for added thiamine(More)
Manganese (Mn) is an essential mineral but is toxic when taken in excess. However, whether its interactions with other minerals in organs and cells are involved in mechanisms underlying Mn toxicity is poorly understood. We designed a developmental rat model of chronic Mn treatment (Group A: 1 mg MnCl2.4H2O per ml of drinking water; Group B: 10 mg MnCl2.4H2O(More)
  • J C Lai
  • 1992
Methodological advances have allowed the isolation of two populations of synaptic (SM and SM2) and two populations of nonsynaptic (A and B) mitochondria from rat forebrain. All four populations of brain mitochondria are metabolically active and essentially free from nonmitochondrial contaminants. They (SM, SM2, A, and B) can oxidize a variety of substrates;(More)
The regional enzyme activities of glucose metabolism in the rat brain were investigated. Hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1), key enzymes for glucose metabolism, showed no changes in activity in all the regions studied of the aging brain as compared with the adult brain. However, the activity of D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase(More)
The effects of chronic manganese chloride administration (1 mg MnCl2.4H2O/ml of drinking water) and ageing on the regional distribution of monoamine oxidase (MAO, EC 1.4.3.4) were studied in 2-month- and 24-28-month-old rats. In both the control and Mn-treated rats, the serotonin oxidation (type A) rates decreased in hypothalamus, pons and medulla,(More)
We examined the influence of aging upon the uptake of glutamate by synaptosomes, and the oxidation of synaptosomal vitamin E. Synaptosomes isolated from the cerebral hemispheres of Fischer 344 rats, 4 and 24 months old, were suspended at 37 degrees C in buffer (pH 7.4) simulating extracellular fluid containing 10 mM glucose. The Km for the high affinity(More)
An impairment of mitochondrial functions as a result of Ca-loading may be one of the significant events that lead to neuronal death after an ischemic insult. To assess the metabolic consequences of excess Ca on brain mitochondria, pyruvate oxidation was studied in isolated cerebrocortical mitochondria loaded with Ca in vitro. The flux of pyruvate(More)