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Studies using primary cultures of astrocytes have made essential contributions to the understanding of astrocytic functions and neuronal-astrocytic interactions. The purposes of this article are to (i) outline principles and methodologies used in the preparation of such cultures and caveats for the interpretation of the observations made; (ii) summarize(More)
The substrate and cofactor requirements and some kinetic properties of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC; EC 1.2.4.2, EC 2.3.1.61, and EC 1.6.4.3) in purified rat brain mitochondria were studied. Brain mitochondrial KGDHC showed absolute requirement for alpha-ketoglutarate, CoA and NAD, and only partial requirement for added thiamine(More)
Manganese (Mn) is an essential mineral but is toxic when taken in excess. However, whether its interactions with other minerals in organs and cells are involved in mechanisms underlying Mn toxicity is poorly understood. We designed a developmental rat model of chronic Mn treatment (Group A: 1 mg MnCl2.4H2O per ml of drinking water; Group B: 10 mg MnCl2.4H2O(More)
Recent evidence suggests silicon dioxide micro- and nanoparticles induce cytotoxic effects on lung cells. Thus, there is an increasing concern regarding their potential health hazard. Nevertheless, the putative toxicity of nanoparticles in mammalian cells has not yet been systematically investigated. We previously noted that several metallic oxide(More)
Hexokinase (HK, EC 2.7.1.1) is a key enzyme in the control of brain glucose metabolism. The regulatory role of HK in different neural cell types has not been elucidated. In this study we determined some kinetic and regulatory properties of HK in mouse cerebrocortical astrocytes in primary culture. Astroglial HK showed an absolute requirement for Mg-ATP and(More)
The regional enzyme activities of glucose metabolism in the rat brain were investigated. Hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.4.1), key enzymes for glucose metabolism, showed no changes in activity in all the regions studied of the aging brain as compared with the adult brain. However, the activity of D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase(More)
Previous (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments have shown that over a wide range of neuronal activity, approximately one molecule of glucose is oxidized for every molecule of glutamate released by neurons and recycled through astrocytic glutamine. The measured kinetics were shown to agree with the stoichiometry of a hypothetical(More)
The levels of the antioxidants, glutathione and ascorbate were measured in primary cultures of murine astrocytes and neurons. The concentration of glutathione (reduced, GSH + oxidized, GSSG) was high in cultured, differentiated (i.e. treated with dBcAMP) and undifferentiated (i.e. untreated) astrocytes: approximately 25 (n = 2) and 16.0 +/- 5.0 (n = 7)(More)