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The molecular mechanisms underlying rumen epithelial adaption to high-grain (HG) diets are unknown. To gain insight into the metabolic mechanisms governing epithelial adaptation, mature nonlactating dairy cattle (n = 4) were transitioned from a high-forage diet (HF, 0% grain) to an HG diet (65% grain). After the cattle were fed the HG diet for 3 wk, they(More)
Our objectives were to determine the effects of neuroendocrine challenge and substrates on in vitro alpha-amylase and trypsin release in pancreatic tissue collected from Holstein calves (n = 24; 88 +/- 3 kg) abomasally infused for 10 d with tap water (control), partially hydrolyzed starch (SH; 4 g/[kg of BW x d]) and/ or casein (0.6 g/[kg of BW x d]). The(More)
In geographic regions where selenium (Se) soil concentrations are naturally low, the addition of Se to animal feed is necessary. Even though it is known that Se in grass and forage crops is primarily present in organic forms (especially as L-selenomethionine, L-selenocystine, and L-selenocystathionine), the feeding of Se in the naturally occurring organic(More)
Selenium (Se) is an important trace mineral that, due to deficiencies in the soil in many parts of the USA, must be supplemented directly to the diet of foraging cattle. Both organic and inorganic forms of dietary Se supplements are available and commonly used, and it is known that Se form affects tissue assimilation, bioavailability, and physiological(More)
Selenium (Se) content of feedstuffs is dependent on the Se level of the soil. Even though Se in grass and forage crops is primarily present in organic forms, Se is commonly supplemented in cattle diets in an inorganic (sodium selenite) form in geographic regions where Se soil concentrations are low. The purpose of this study was to answer two important(More)
Although cationic amino acids (CAA) are considered essential to maximize optimal growth of cattle, transporters responsible for CAA absorption by bovine small intestinal epithelia have not been described. This study was conducted to test 2 hypotheses: 1) the duodenal, jejunal, and ileal epithelia of beef cattle differentially express 7 mRNA associated with(More)
Glutamate metabolism is essential to support many facets of metabolism. The objective of this study was to determine the tissue distribution of glutamate transporters known to support the tissue metabolism of glutamate. The expression of proteins capable of high-affinity glutamate transport (system X-(AG)) by epithelia isolated from the rumen, omasum,(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this experiment was to assess the long-term effects of oral nitrate therapy on ventricular remodeling in a canine model of discrete myocardial damage. BACKGROUND A progressive increase in left ventricular mass and volume has been documented after experimental and clinical myocardial infarction. This ventricular remodeling has(More)
Glutamate is a central metabolite for whole-animal energy and N metabolism. This study tested the hypothesis that ileal epithelium, liver, and kidney content of system X-(AG) glutamate transporters EAAC1 and GLT-1 would be up-regulated to support growth of wethers (30 +/- 1.2 kg) fed a forage-based diet for at least 14 d to gain (2.0 x NEm; n = 9) vs.(More)
Absorption of di- and tripeptides from the gastrointestinal tract is accepted as being an important biological phenomenon. The extent to which peptides are absorbed and the nutritional and metabolic significance of peptide absorption remain unclear. Evidence is strong for the existence of multiple peptide transport systems, including one type that is(More)