James C Cross

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Neurogenesis occurs in the olfactory system of the adult brain throughout life, in both invertebrates and vertebrates, but its physiological regulation is not understood. We show that the production of neuronal progenitors is stimulated in the forebrain subventricular zone of female mice during pregnancy and that this effect is mediated by the hormone(More)
The placenta is the first organ to form during mammalian embryogenesis. Problems in its formation and function underlie many aspects of early pregnancy loss and pregnancy complications in humans. Because the placenta is critical for survival, it is very sensitive to genetic disruption, as reflected by the ever-increasing list of targeted mouse mutations(More)
The mammalian embryo cannot develop without the placenta. Its specialized cells (trophoblast, endoderm, and extraembryonic mesoderm) form early in development. They attach the embryo to the uterus (implantation) and form vascular connections necessary for nutrient transport. In addition, the placenta redirects maternal endocrine, immune, and metabolic(More)
Trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) are the first terminally differentiated subtype to form in the trophoblast cell lineage in rodents. In addition to mediating implantation, they are the main endocrine cells of the placenta, producing several hormones which regulate the maternal endocrine and immune systems and promote maternal blood flow to the implantation(More)
The placenta and cardiovascular system are the first organ systems to form during mammalian embryogenesis. We show here that a single gene is critical for development of both. The Hand1 gene, previously called Hxt, eHAND and Thing1, encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that starts to be expressed during pre-implantation development.(More)
Trophoblast cells are the first lineage to form in the mammalian conceptus and mediate the process of implantation. We report the cloning of a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor gene, Hxt, that is expressed in early trophoblast and in differentiated giant cells. A separate gene, Hed, encodes a related protein that is expressed in maternal(More)
Mammalian embryos have an intimate relationship with their mothers, particularly with the placental vasculature from which embryos obtain nutrients essential for growth. It is an interesting vascular bed because maternal vessel number and diameter change dramatically during gestation and, in rodents and primates, the terminal blood space becomes lined by(More)
The labyrinth of the rodent placenta contains villi that are the site of nutrient exchange between mother and fetus. They are covered by three trophoblast cell types that separate the maternal blood sinusoids from fetal capillaries--a single mononuclear cell that is a subtype of trophoblast giant cell (sinusoidal or S-TGC) with endocrine function and two(More)
Proteins with SH2 and SH3 domains link tyrosine kinases to intracellular pathways. To investigate the biological functions of a mammalian SH2/SH3 adaptor, we have introduced a null mutation into the mouse gene for Grb2. Analysis of mutant embryonic stem cells, embryos, and chimeras reveals that Grb2 is required during embyrogenesis for the differentiation(More)
Trophoblast cells of the placenta are established at the blastocyst stage and differentiate into specialized subtypes after implantation. In mice, the outer layer of the placenta consists of trophoblast giant cells that invade the uterus and promote maternal blood flow to the implantation site by producing cytokines with angiogenic and vasodilatory actions.(More)