James C. Ballenger

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BACKGROUND We assess the annual economic burden of anxiety disorders in the United States from a societal perspective. METHOD Using data from the National Comorbidity Study, we applied multivariate regression techniques to calculate the costs associated with anxiety disorders, after adjusting for demographic characteristics and the presence of comorbid(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid of the major central metabolites of serotonin (5HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA)--5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy=phenylglycol (MHPG), and homovanillic acid (HVA), respectively--were studied in a group of 26 age-similar military men with no history of major psychiatric illness, but with various(More)
BACKGROUND Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a new technology for noninvasively stimulating the brain. Several studies have suggested that daily stimulation of the left prefrontal cortex with TMS for 2 weeks has probable antidepressant effects. We conducted a parallel-design, double-masked, sham-controlled study to address whether 2 weeks of daily(More)
Patients with generalized social phobia fear embarrassment in most social situations. Little is known about its functional neuroanatomy. We studied BOLD-fMRI brain activity while generalized social phobics and healthy controls anticipated making public speeches. With anticipation minus rest, 8 phobics compared to 6 controls showed greater subcortical,(More)
Periodic brain stimulation, particularly in the limbic system, at stimulus intensities initially too low to produce any behavioural or EEG effects, progressively produces EEG changes, motor automatisms, and eventually convulsions, an effect called kindling. Data are presented and reviewed that suggest that the severity of alcohol withdrawal symptoms(More)
There has been speculation that a kindling model may have applicability to alcohol withdrawal syndromes and seizures, suggesting that repeated alcohol withdrawals may lead to increased severity of subsequent withdrawals. We evaluated historical and clinical variables of a group of male alcoholics with (n = 25) and without (n = 25) alcohol withdrawal(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this consensus statement is to provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in social anxiety disorder (social phobia) and guide clinical practice with recommendations for appropriate pharmacotherapy. PARTICIPANTS The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were(More)
The progress in developing effective treatments for the five principal anxiety disorders (ADs) in adults--panic disorder (PD), social phobia (SP), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)--has been rapid in the past 15 years. There are now well-controlled clinical trials documenting(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide primary care clinicians with a better understanding of management issues in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and guide clinical practice with recommendations on the appropriate management strategy. PARTICIPANTS The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R.(More)
Following promising preliminary evidence, the benzodiazepine-derivative alprazolam was studied in a large, placebo-controlled, eight-week, flexible-dose trial in patients with agoraphobia with panic attacks and panic disorder. Of 526 patients, 481 completed three weeks of treatment; however, significantly more placebo (102/234) than alprazolam (21/247)(More)