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Recombinant proteins containing tetracysteine tags can be successively labeled in living cells with different colors of biarsenical fluorophores so that older and younger protein molecules can be sharply distinguished by both fluorescence and electron microscopy. Here we used this approach to show that newly synthesized connexin43 was transported(More)
Alignment of the individual images of a tilt series is a critical step in obtaining high-quality electron microscope reconstructions. We report on general methods for producing good alignments, and utilizing the alignment data in subsequent reconstruction steps. Our alignment techniques utilize bundle adjustment. Bundle adjustment is the simultaneous(More)
A prototype direct detection device (DDD) camera system has shown great promise in improving both the spatial resolution and the signal to noise ratio for electron microscopy at 120-400 keV beam energies (Xuong et al., 2007. Methods in Cell Biology, 79, 721-739). Without the need for a resolution-limiting scintillation screen as in the charge coupled device(More)
An automatic mosaic acquisition and processing system for a multiphoton microscope is described for imaging large expanses of biological specimens at or near the resolution limit of light microscopy. In a mosaic, a larger image is created from a series of smaller images individually acquired systematically across a specimen. Mosaics allow wide-field views(More)
A new high-resolution recording device for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is urgently needed. Neither film nor CCD cameras are systems that allow for efficient 3-D high-resolution particle reconstruction. We tested an active pixel sensor (APS) array as a replacement device at 200, 300, and 400 keV using a JEOL JEM-2000 FX II and a JEM-4000 EX(More)
We describe the technique and application of energy filtering, automated most-probable loss (MPL) tomography to intermediate voltage electron microscopy (IVEM). We show that for thick, selectively stained biological specimens, this method produces a dramatic increase in resolution of the projections and the computed volumes versus standard unfiltered(More)
Gap junctions (GJ) are defined as contact regions between two adjacent cells containing tens to thousands of closely packed membrane channels. Cells dynamically modulate communication through GJ by regulating the synthesis, transport and turnover of these channels. Previously, we engineered a recombinant connexin43 (Cx43) by genetically appending a small(More)
Serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) is quickly becoming an important imaging tool to explore three-dimensional biological structure across spatial scales. At probe-beam-electron energies of 2.0 keV or lower, the axial resolution should improve, because there is less primary electron penetration into the block face. More specifically, at(More)