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Although the Amazon Basin is well known for its diversity of flora and fauna, this report represents the first description of the microbial diversity in Amazonian soils involving a culture-independent approach. Among the 100 sequences of genes coding for small-subunit rRNA obtained by PCR amplification with universal small-subunit rRNA primers, 98 were(More)
Fungi influence nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems, as they are major regulators of decomposition and soil respiration. However, little is known about the substrate preferences of individual fungal species outside of laboratory culture studies. If active fungi differ in their substrate preferences in situ, then changes in fungal diversity due to(More)
The metagenomics approach allows the simultaneous sequencing of all genomes in an environmental sample. This results in high complexity datasets, where in addition to repeats and sequencing errors, the number of genomes and their abundance ratios are unknown. Recently developed next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies significantly improve the(More)
BACKGROUND Replant disease often occurs when certain crops are "replanted" in a soil that had previously supported the same or similar plant species. This disease typically leads to reductions in plant growth, crop yields, and production duration, and its etiology remains ill-defined. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms associated(More)
We propose two efficient heuristics for minimizing the number of oligonucleotide probes needed for analyzing populations of ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) clones by hybridization experiments on DNA microarrays. Such analyses have applications in the study of microbial communities. Unlike in the classical SBH (sequencing by hybridization) procedure, where(More)
Fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) is an enzyme that is responsible for the synthesis of the H antigen in body fluids and on the intestinal mucosa. The H antigen is an oligosaccharide moiety that acts as both an attachment site and carbon source for intestinal bacteria. Non-secretors, who are homozygous for the loss-of-function alleles of FUT2 gene (sese), have(More)
Oligonucleotide fingerprinting is a powerful DNA array based method to characterize cDNA and ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) libraries and has many applications including gene expression profiling and DNA clone classification. We are especially interested in the latter application. A key step in the method is the cluster analysis of fingerprint data obtained from(More)
One of the first steps in characterizing an ecosystem is to describe the organisms inhabiting it. For microbial studies, experimental limitations have hindered the ability to depict diverse communities. Here we describe oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes (OFRG), a method that permits identification of arrayed rRNA genes (rDNA) through a series of(More)
BACKGROUND Consistent compositional shifts in the gut microbiota are observed in IBD and other chronic intestinal disorders and may contribute to pathogenesis. The identities of microbial biomolecular mechanisms and metabolic products responsible for disease phenotypes remain to be determined, as do the means by which such microbial functions may be(More)
BACKGROUND Regardless of infection route, the intestine is the primary site for HIV-1 infection establishment and results in significant mucosal CD4+ T lymphocyte depletion, induces an inflammatory state that propagates viral dissemination, facilitates microbial translocation, and fosters establishment of one of the largest HIV reservoirs. Here we test the(More)