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An all-fiber-optic frequency shifter is demonstrated that uses mode coupling between the LP(01) and LP(11) modes by a traveling acoustic flexural wave guided along the optical fiber. The input and output leads of this frequency shifter are single-mode fibers. Unity mode-conversion efficiency for cw operation is achieved at 8-MHz frequency shift with about(More)
This paper identifies and discusses features of the classification of mammals that are relevant to the bibliographic classification of the subject. The tendency of zoological classifications to change; the differing sizes of groups of species; the use zoologists make of groupings other than taxa; and the links in zoology between classification and(More)
Acoustic modes propagating in cylindrical solid rods are considered. A review of the properties of several mode groups is given, and computed results are shown for a wide range of material properties. The lower mode of each group is relevant for an all-fiber-optic frequency shifter recently demonstrated. For these modes dispersion relations, mode patterns,(More)
Longitudinal strains in optical fibers have been found to produce a large differential phase shift between the first-and second-order spatial modes propagating in a two-mode fiber. This differential phase shift between the modes is both calculated and measured to be dispersive with respect to wavelength. For fibers with highly elliptical core geometries,(More)
The four complex, almost degenerate, second-order eigenmodes of a two-mode fiber having a circular core are reduced to two nondegenerate, linearly polarized second-order eigenmodes with stable-intensity lobe positions in a highly elliptical core fiber. Existing two-mode-fiber devices can be improved by this stabilization of the second-order modes. Practical(More)
A s many researchers have found, the data they have to deal with are often high-dimensional—that is, expressed by many variables—but may contain a great deal of latent structure. Discovering that structure , however, is nontrivial. To illustrate the point, consider a case in the relatively low dimension of three. Suppose you are handed a large number of(More)
Simple expressions for the coupling between the LP(01) and LP(11) modes of a two-mode optical fiber with a periodic microbending structure are developed. Implementation of the microbend structure using a flexural acoustic wave is described. The dependences of the acoustic frequency and power requirements on the pertinent fiber parameters are presented.
  • 2003
i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are particularly grateful to the many school administrators, teachers, and facility managers who took time from their very busy schedules to respond to detailed questionnaires and to allow entry to their campuses during difficult times following the terrorist attacks of September 11th. Without their cooperation and assistance, this(More)