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Biomass formation represents one of the most basic aspects of bacterial metabolism. While there is an abundance of information concerning individual reactions that result in cell duplication, there has been surprisingly little information on the bioenergetics of growth. For many years, it was assumed that biomass production (anabolism) was proportional to(More)
When glucose or cellobiose was provided as an energy source for Fibrobacter succinogenes, there was a transient accumulation (as much as 0.4 mM hexose equivalent) of cellobiose or cellotriose, respectively, in the growth medium. Nongrowing cell suspensions converted cellobiose to cellotriose and longer-chain cellodextrins, and in this case the total(More)
Ruminal amino acid degradation is a nutritionally wasteful process that produces excess ruminal ammonia. Monensin inhibited the growth of monensin-sensitive, obligate amino acid-fermenting bacteria and decreased the ruminal ammonia concentrations of cattle. 16S rRNA probes indicated that monensin inhibited the growth of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and(More)
Glucose-excess cultures of Streptococcus bovis consumed glucose faster than the amount that could be explained by growth or maintenance, and nongrowing chloramphenicol-treated cells had a rate of glucose consumption that was 10-fold greater than the maintenance rate. Because N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, an inhibitor of the membrane-bound F1F0 ATPase,(More)
When the rate of glucose addition to nongrowing Streptococcus bovis cell suspensions was increased, the fermentation was homolactic, fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) increased, intracellular inorganic phosphate (P(i)) declined, and the energy-spilling rate increased. ATP and ADP were not significantly affected by glucose consumption rate, but the decrease in(More)
When the extracellular pH was increased from 7.6 to 9.8, Clostridium paradoxum, a novel alkalithermophile, increased its pH gradient across the cell membrane ((Delta)pH, pH(infin) - pH(infout)) by as much as 1.3 U. At higher pH values (>10.0), the (Delta)pH and membrane potential ((Delta)(psi)) eventually declined, and the intracellular pH increased(More)
Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass is a promising source of ethanol. This process uses anaerobic bacteria, their own cellulolytic enzymes and fermentation pathways that convert the products of cellulose hydrolysis to ethanol in a single reactor. However, the engineering and economics of the process remain questionable. The ruminal(More)
Previous work indicated that Streptococcus bovis HC5 had significant antibacterial activity, and even nisin-resistant S. bovis JB1 cells could be strongly inhibited. S. bovis HC5 inhibited a variety of Gram-positive bacteria and the spectrum of activity was similar to monensin, a commonly used feed additive. The crude extracts (ammonium sulfate(More)
Streptococcus bovis JB1 cells were able to transport serine, threonine, or alanine, but only when they were incubated in sodium buffers. If glucose-energized cells were washed in potassium phosphate and suspended in potassium phosphate buffer, there was no detectable uptake. Cells deenergized with 2-deoxyglucose and incubated in sodium phosphate buffer were(More)
Beef cattle have been fed ionophores and other antibiotics for more than 20 years to decrease ruminal fermentation losses (e.g methane and ammonia) and increase feed efficiency, and these improvements have been explained by an inhibition of gram-positive ruminal bacteria. Ionophores are not used to treat human disease, but there has been an increased(More)