James B Millar

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We have previously reported that the CD8+ T cell response elicited by recombinant adenovirus vaccination displayed a delayed contraction in the spleen. In our current study, we demonstrate that this unusual kinetic is a general phenomenon observed in multiple tissues. Phenotypic analysis of transgene-specific CD8+ T cells present 30 days postimmunization(More)
Previous studies determined that the CD8(+) T-cell response elicited by recombinant adenovirus exhibited a protracted contraction phase that was associated with long-term presentation of antigen. To gain further insight into this process, a doxycycline-regulated adenovirus was constructed to enable controlled extinction of transgene expression in vivo. We(More)
We have investigated the role of CD4(+) T cells in the development of the CD8(+) T-cell response after immunization with recombinant adenovirus (rAd). In the absence of CD4(+) T cells, the "unhelped" CD8(+) T-cell population exhibited a reduction in primary expansion and long-term survival that appeared to be due to inadequate priming of naïve T cells.(More)
We have recently reported that CD8(+) T-cell memory maintenance after immunization with recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (rHuAd5) is dependent upon persistent transgene expression beyond the peak of the response. In this report, we have further investigated the location and nature of the cell populations responsible for this sustained response. The(More)
In vivo electroporation dramatically enhances plasmid vaccine efficacy. This enhancement can be attributed to increased plasmid delivery and, possibly, to some undefined adjuvant properties. Previous reports have demonstrated CD8(+) T cell priming by plasmid vaccines is strongly dependent upon CD4(+) T cell help. Indeed, the efficacy of a plasmid vaccine(More)
Plasmid DNA vaccine has been widely explored for tuberculosis immunization but there is a need to develop the ways to improve its immunogenicity. In this study, we have constructed a plasmid DNA vaccine coding for Ag85A alone or for both Ag85A and GM-CSF and investigated the immune adjuvant effects of electroporation and GM-CSF co-expression, alone or in(More)
We have investigated the therapeutic potential of a prototypic melanoma vaccine based on recombinant adenovirus expressing human dopachrome tautomerase in the B16F10 murine melanoma model. We found that in the presence of a tumor, the magnitude of T-cell immunity evoked by the vaccine was significantly reduced. This impairment was compounded by defects in(More)
Virus-based recombinant vaccines have proven highly effective at generating protective CD8+ T cell responses. Multiple vector platforms are available, however, little is known about the relative influence of the different vectors on the transgene-specific CD8+ T cell population. To address this question, we compared several characteristics of the CD8+ T(More)
We have examined the efficacy of vaccination with recombinant adenovirus under conditions of extreme leukopenia in lethally irradiated mice reconstituted with autologous bone marrow. The expansion of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells following immunization of lethally irradiated hosts paralleled the recovery of total CD8(+) T cells. Surprisingly, the numbers(More)
We have been investigating the adjuvant properties of two super-activated interferon-regulatory factors (IRFs), IRF-3(5D) and IRF7/3A, identified in our previous studies of structure-function relationships, for enhancing plasmid vaccines. Intramuscular injection of plasmid cocktails encoding IRF-3(5D) and IRF7/3A molecules elicited cytotoxic T cell(More)