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Many bacterial pathogens utilize a type III secretion system to deliver multiple effector proteins into host cells. Here we found that the type III effectors, NleE from enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and OspZ from Shigella, blocked translocation of the p65 subunit of the transcription factor, NF-kappaB, to the host cell nucleus. NF-kappaB inhibition by(More)
The virulence properties of many pathogenic bacteria are due to proteins encoded by large gene clusters called pathogenicity islands, which are found in a variety of human pathogens including Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae, and animal and plant pathogens such as Dichelobacter nodosus and Pseudomonas(More)
Adherence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) to the intestinal epithelium is essential for initiation of infection. Intimin is the only factor demonstrated to play a role in intestinal colonization by EHEC O157:H7. Other attempts to identify additional adhesion factors in vitro have been unsuccessful, suggesting that expression of these factors is(More)
The genes encoding the A (toxic) subunit of cholera toxin were deleted from pathogenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strain 569B by recombinant techniques, leaving intact production of immunogenic, non-toxic B subunit. The resultant strain, CVD 103, evaluated for safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy as a live oral vaccine, was highly attenuated and elicited strong(More)
Some strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, and non-O1 V cholerae produce a bacterial-cell-associated, heat-stable material that is cytotoxic for hela cells. Cytotoxicity is completely neutralised by antibody to purified Shigella dysenteriae 1 (Shiga) toxin but not by antibody to purified cholera toxin.
An ideal vaccine does not yet exist to prevent cholera, a significant health problem in many less developed countries. Vibrio cholerae, the agent of epidemic and endemic cholera, colonizes the small bowel and secretes a potent enterotoxin that consists of a single A subunit, which stimulates adenylate cyclase activity, and five identical B subunits which(More)
While phosphotyrosine modification is an established regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes, it is less well characterized in bacteria due to low prevalence. To gain insight into the extent and biological importance of tyrosine phosphorylation in Escherichia coli, we used immunoaffinity-based phosphotyrosine peptide enrichment combined with high resolution mass(More)