James B. Kaper

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Escherichia coli is the predominant nonpathogenic facultative flora of the human intestine. Some E. coli strains, however, have developed the ability to cause disease of the gastrointestinal, urinary, or central nervous system in even the most robust human hosts. Diarrheagenic strains of E. coli can be divided into at least six different categories with(More)
Few microorganisms are as versatile as Escherichia coli. An important member of the normal intestinal microflora of humans and other mammals, E. coli has also been widely exploited as a cloning host in recombinant DNA technology. But E. coli is more than just a laboratory workhorse or harmless intestinal inhabitant; it can also be a highly versatile, and(More)
Virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria (adhesins, toxins, invasins, protein secretion systems, iron uptake systems, and others) may be encoded by particular regions of the prokaryotic genome termed pathogenicity islands. Pathogenicity islands were first described in human pathogens of the species Escherichia coli, but have recently been found in the(More)
Quorum sensing is a cell-to-cell signalling mechanism in which bacteria secrete hormone-like compounds called autoinducers. When these auto-inducers reach a certain threshold concentration, they interact with bacterial transcriptional regulators, thereby regulating gene expression. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 as well as E. coli K-12(More)
The interbacterial communication system known as quorum sensing (QS) utilizes hormone-like compounds referred to as autoinducers to regulate bacterial gene expression. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 is the agent responsible for outbreaks of bloody diarrhea in several countries. We previously proposed that EHEC uses a QS(More)
The ability of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) to form attaching and effacing intestinal lesions is a major characteristic of EPEC pathogenesis. Using TnphoA mutagenesis we have identified a chromosomal gene (eae, for E. coli attaching and effacing) that is necessary for this activity. A DNA probe derived from this gene hybridizes to 100% of E.(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 are intestinal pathogens that profoundly damage the microvilli and subapical cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. Here we report finding in EPEC a 35-kbp locus containing several regions implicated in formation of these lesions. DNA probes throughout this locus hybridize to E. coli(More)
The ability to attach to epithelial cells, efface the microvillus surface, and disrupt the underlying cytoskeleton is characteristic of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Recently, eae, a gene necessary for this phenomenon, was described (A. E. Jerse, J. Yu, B. D. Tall, and J. B. Kaper, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:7839-7843, 1990). We report the(More)
The distribution of EDL 933 O island 122 (OI-122) was investigated in 70 strains of Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) of multiple serotypes that were classified into five "seropathotypes" (A through E) based on the reported occurrence of serotypes in human disease, in outbreaks, and/or in the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Seropathotype A(More)