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  • James B Kaper
  • 2004
Few microorganisms are as versatile as Escherichia coli. An important member of the normal intestinal microflora of humans and other mammals, E. coli has also been widely exploited as a cloning host in recombinant DNA technology. But E. coli is more than just a laboratory workhorse or harmless intestinal inhabitant; it can also be a highly versatile, and(More)
Many bacterial pathogens utilize a type III secretion system to deliver multiple effector proteins into host cells. Here we found that the type III effectors, NleE from enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and OspZ from Shigella, blocked translocation of the p65 subunit of the transcription factor, NF-kappaB, to the host cell nucleus. NF-kappaB inhibition by(More)
Regulation of virulence gene expression in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) is incompletely understood. In EPEC, the plasmid-encoded regulator Per is required for maximal expression of proteins encoded on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), and a LEE-encoded regulator (Ler) is part of the Per-mediated(More)
The function of the rorf2 gene located on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) has not been described. We report that rorf2 encodes a novel protein, named EspG, which is secreted by the type III secretory system and which is translocated into host epithelial cells. EspG is homologous with(More)
Vaccine reactogenicity has complicated the development of safe and effective live, oral cholera vaccines. Delta ctx Vibrio cholerae mutants have been shown to induce inflammatory diarrhea in volunteers and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. Bacterial flagellins are known to induce IL-8 production through Toll-like(More)
Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that causes millions of cases of watery or bloody diarrhea annually, resulting in significant global mortality. Watery diarrhea is thought to arise in the jejunum, and subsequent bloody diarrhea occurs as a result of invasion of the colonic epithelium. Previous literature has(More)
INTRODUCTION Bacteria that colonize the intestine, invade intestinal epithe-lial cells, and/or produce one or more toxins are important etiologies of diarrheal disease in both industrialized and developing countries. The primary focus of this review will be to discuss the toxins produced by human enteric pathogens and how the mechanisms of action of these(More)
The virulence properties of many pathogenic bacteria are due to proteins encoded by large gene clusters called pathogenicity islands, which are found in a variety of human pathogens including Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Helicobacter pylori, Vibrio cholerae, and animal and plant pathogens such as Dichelobacter nodosus and Pseudomonas(More)
The genes encoding the A (toxic) subunit of cholera toxin were deleted from pathogenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strain 569B by recombinant techniques, leaving intact production of immunogenic, non-toxic B subunit. The resultant strain, CVD 103, evaluated for safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy as a live oral vaccine, was highly attenuated and elicited strong(More)
Adherence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) to the intestinal epithelium is essential for initiation of infection. Intimin is the only factor demonstrated to play a role in intestinal colonization by EHEC O157:H7. Other attempts to identify additional adhesion factors in vitro have been unsuccessful, suggesting that expression of these factors is(More)