James B. Hittner

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Greater than 80% of malaria-related mortality occurs in sub-Saharan Africa due to infections with Plasmodium falciparum. The majority of P. falciparum-related mortality occurs in immune-naïve infants and young children, accounting for 18% of all deaths before five years of age. Clinical manifestations of severe falciparum malaria vary according to(More)
Plasmodium falciparum malaria is one of the leading global causes of morbidity and mortality with African children bearing the highest disease burden. Among the various severe disease sequelae common to falciparum malaria, severe malarial anemia (SMA) in pediatric populations accounts for the greatest degree of mortality. Although the patho-physiological(More)
Since the etiologies and clinical outcomes of bacteremia in children with Plasmodium falciparum infections, particularly in areas of holoendemic malaria transmission, are largely unexplored, blood cultures and comprehensive clinical, laboratory, hematological, and nutritional parameters for malaria-infected children (aged 1 to 36 months, n = 585 patients)(More)
Areas where Plasmodium falciparum transmission is holoendemic are characterized by high rates of pediatric severe malarial anemia (SMA) and associated mortality. Although the etiology of SMA is complex and multifactorial, perturbations in inflammatory mediator production play an important role in the pathogenic process. As such, the current study focused on(More)
Experiments outlined here investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum-induced malarial anemia (MA). The results show that ex vivo and in vitro NO synthase (NOS) activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is significantly elevated in children with MA and inversely associated with hemoglobin levels.(More)
Severe malarial anaemia (SMA) is a common complication of Plasmodium falciparum infections, resulting in mortality rates that may exceed 30% in paediatric populations residing in holoendemic transmission areas. One strategy for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with SMA is to identify clinical predictors that can be readily recognized by(More)
A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between sensation seeking and alcohol use. Analysis of 61 studies revealed a small to moderate size, heterogeneous effect (mean weighted r=.263) between alcohol use and sensation seeking total scale scores. Analysis of the four sensation seeking components indicated that disinhibition was most(More)
It is well known that when data are nonnormally distributed, a test of the significance of Pearson's r may inflate Type I error rates and reduce power. Statistics textbooks and the simulation literature provide several alternatives to Pearson's correlation. However, the relative performance of these alternatives has been unclear. Two simulation studies were(More)
This study examined the gender invariance of the 13-item Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a single factor model with one pair of correlated errors fit the data well. Invariance testing indicated that the scale is both congeneric and tau equivalent, meaning that a single latent SOC construct holds equally well for(More)
The authors conducted a Monte Carlo simulation of 8 statistical tests for comparing dependent zero-order correlations. In particular, they evaluated the Type I error rates and power of a number of test statistics for sample sizes (Ns) of 20, 50, 100, and 300 under 3 different population distributions (normal, uniform, and exponential). For the Type I error(More)