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It is well known that when data are nonnormally distributed, a test of the significance of Pearson's r may inflate Type I error rates and reduce power. Statistics textbooks and the simulation literature provide several alternatives to Pearson's correlation. However, the relative performance of these alternatives has been unclear. Two simulation studies were(More)
This study examined the gender invariance of the 13-item Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a single factor model with one pair of correlated errors fit the data well. Invariance testing indicated that the scale is both congeneric and tau equivalent, meaning that a single latent SOC construct holds equally well for(More)
Chemokines regulate the host immune response to a variety of infectious pathogens. Since the role of chemokines in regulating host immunity in children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria has not previously been reported, circulating levels of beta-chemokines (MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES) and their respective transcriptional profiles in ex vivo(More)
Experiments outlined here investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum-induced malarial anemia (MA). The results show that ex vivo and in vitro NO synthase (NOS) activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is significantly elevated in children with MA and inversely associated with hemoglobin levels.(More)
Since the etiologies and clinical outcomes of bacteremia in children with Plasmodium falciparum infections, particularly in areas of holoendemic malaria transmission, are largely unexplored, blood cultures and comprehensive clinical, laboratory, hematological, and nutritional parameters for malaria-infected children (aged 1 to 36 months, n = 585 patients)(More)
Severe malarial anemia (MA) is the primary manifestation of severe malaria among children in areas of holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission. Although overproduction of inflammatory-derived cytokines are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of severe MA, chemokines such as regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES, CCL5)(More)
Areas where Plasmodium falciparum transmission is holoendemic are characterized by high rates of pediatric severe malarial anemia (SMA) and associated mortality. Although the etiology of SMA is complex and multifactorial, perturbations in inflammatory mediator production play an important role in the pathogenic process. As such, the current study focused on(More)
The authors conducted a Monte Carlo simulation of 8 statistical tests for comparing dependent zero-order correlations. In particular, they evaluated the Type I error rates and power of a number of test statistics for sample sizes (Ns) of 20, 50, 100, and 300 under 3 different population distributions (normal, uniform, and exponential). For the Type I error(More)
Malaria and HIV-1 are coendemic in many developing countries, with anemia being the most common pediatric hematological manifestation of each disease. Anemia is also one of the primary causes of mortality in children monoinfected with either malaria or HIV-1. Although our previous results showed HIV-1(+) children with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria(More)