James B Harsh

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Biogeochemical processes in the rhizosphere can significantly alter interactions between contaminants and soil minerals. In this study, several strains of bacteria that exude aluminum (Al)-chelating compounds were isolated from the rhizosphere of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum) collected from the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). We examined the(More)
Radioactive waste, accumulated during Pu production, has leaked into the subsurface from underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site. The leaking solutions contained 137Cs and were of high ionic strength. Such a tank leak was simulated experimentally in steady-state flow experiments with packed Hanford sediments. The initial(More)
Chlorpyrifos, one of the most widely used insecticides, has been detected in air, rain, marine sediments, surface waters, drinking water wells, and solid and liquid dietary samples collected from urban and rural areas. Its metabolite, TCP, has also been widely detected in urinary samples collected from people of various age groups. With a goal of(More)
Three different DNA fragments ranging size from 2.69 kbp (1.75 MDa) to 23 kbp (14.95 MDa) were used as tracers to study the adsorption of polydisperse solutions of calf thymus DNA to eight model soils. The adsorption of the three tracers to all soils was described by the Freundlich adsorption model, with adsorption coefficients (K) ranging from 1.1 for(More)
Radioactive 137Cs has leaked from underground waste tanks into the vadose zone at the Hanford Reservation in south-central Washington State. There is concern that 137Cs, currently located in the vadose zone, can reach the groundwater. In this study, we investigated whether, and to what extent, colloidal particles can facilitate the transport of 137Cs at(More)
Soil biotic and abiotic factors strongly influence nitrogen (N) availability and increases in nitrification rates associated with the application of manure. In this study, we examine the effects of edaphic properties and a dairy (Bos taurus) slurry amendment on N availability, nitrification rates and nitrifier communities. Soils of variable texture and clay(More)
We experimentally determined colloid stability of natural colloids extracted from vadose zone sediments from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation. We also used reference minerals, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and silica,for comparative purposes. Colloid stability was assessed with two different methods: the batch turbidity method and dynamic(More)
At environmentally relevant concentrations in soils and sediments, chlorpyrifos, a hydrophobic organic insecticide, showed strong adsorption that correlated significantly with organic matter content. Chlorpyrifos desorption followed a nonsingular falling desorption isotherm that was estimated using a memory-dependent mathematical model. Desorption of(More)
We compared five different methods, static sessile drop, dynamic sessile drop, Wilhelmy plate, thin-layer wicking, and column wicking, to determine the contact angle of colloids typical for soils and sediments. The colloids (smectite, kaolinite, illite, goethite, hematite) were chosen to represent 1:1 and 2:1 layered aluminosilicate clays and sesquioxides,(More)
Nuclear waste storage tanks at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington have released highly alkaline solutions, containing radioactive and other contaminants, into subsurface sediments. When this waste reacts with subsurface sediments, feldspathoid minerals (sodalite, cancrinite) can form, sequestering pertechnetate (99TcO4-) and other ions. This study(More)