James B. Grotberg

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A theoretical analysis is presented predicting the closure of small airways in the region of the terminal and respiratory bronchioles. The airways are modelled as thin elastic tubes, coated on the inside with a thin viscous liquid lining. This model produces closure by a coupled capillary-elastic instability leading to liquid bridge formation, wall collapse(More)
When a liquid is instilled in the pulmonary airways during medical therapy, the method of instillation affects the liquid distribution throughout the lung. To investigate the fluid transport dynamics, exogenous surfactant (Survanta) mixed with a radiopaque tracer is instilled into tracheae of vertical, excised rat lungs (ventilation 40 breaths/min, 4 ml(More)
This review describes recent developments in microfabricated flow cytometers and related microfluidic devices that can detect, analyze, and sort cells or particles. The high-speed analytical capabilities of flow cytometry depend on the cooperative use of microfluidics, optics and electronics. Along with the improvement of other components, replacement of(More)
A computational study is presented for the transport of liquids and insoluble surfactant through the lung airways, delivered from a source at the distal end of the trachea. Four distinct transport regimes are considered: 1) the instilled bolus may create a liquid plug that occludes the large airways but is forced peripherally during mechanical ventilation;(More)
Motivated by the goal of understanding how to most homogeneously fill the lungs with perfluorocarbon for liquid ventilation, we investigate the transport of liquid instilled into the lungs using an intact rabbit model. Perfluorocarbon is instilled into the trachea of the ventilated animal. Radiographic images of the perfluorocarbon distribution are obtained(More)
Liquid can be instilled into the pulmonary airways during medical procedures such as surfactant replacement therapy, partial liquid ventilation, and pulmonary drug delivery. For all cases, understanding the dynamics of liquid distribution in the lung will increase the efficacy of treatment. A recently developed imaging technique for the study of real-time(More)
We describe the mechanisms by which liquids and surfactants can be delivered into the pulmonary airways. These are instilled and transported throughout the lung in clinical therapies such as surfactant replacement therapy, partial liquid ventilation and drug delivery. The success of these treatments is contingent on the liquid distribution and the delivery(More)
Liquid plugs may form in pulmonary airways during the process of liquid instillation or removal in many clinical treatments. During inspiration the plug may split at airway bifurcations and lead to a nonuniform final liquid distribution, which can adversely affect treatment outcomes. In this paper, a combination of bench top experimental and theoretical(More)
Here we map gas-liquid two-phase flow regimes observed in polymeric microchannels with different wetting properties. We utilized video and confocal microscopy to examine two-phase flow patterns produced by parallel injection of air and water through a Y-shaped junction into a rectangular microchannel made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). We observed seven(More)
The effect of gas density on the spectral content of forced expiratory wheezes was studied in the search for additional information on the mechanism of generation of respiratory wheezes. Five normal adults performed forced vital capacity maneuvers through four or five orifice resistors (0.4-1.92 cm ID) after breathing air, 80% He-20% O2, or 80% SF6-20% O2.(More)