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This study followed the transmission of 64 segregating genetic markers to 52 haploid offspring, obtained from both homokaryotic and heterokaryotic meiospores, of a cross (AG 93b) of Agaricus bisporus, the commonly cultivated "button mushroom." The electrophoretic karyotypes of the AG 93b component nuclei were determined concurrently (n = 13). Eleven(More)
The evolution of drug resistance is an important process that affects clinical outcomes. Resistance to fluconazole, the most widely used antifungal, is often associated with acquired aneuploidy. Here we provide a longitudinal study of the prevalence and dynamics of gross chromosomal rearrangements, including aneuploidy, in the presence and absence of(More)
Genetic individuals, or genets, of Armillaria and other root-infecting basidiomycetes are usually found in discrete patches that often include the root systems of several adjacent trees. Each diploid individual is thought to arise in an unique mating event and then grow vegetatively in an expanding territory over a long period of time. Our objective in this(More)
The dissemination and persistence of drug-resistant organisms in nature depends on the relative fitness of sensitive and resistant genotypes. While resistant genotypes are expected to be at an advantage compared to less resistant genotypes in the presence of drug, resistance may incur a cost; resistant genotypes may be at a disadvantage in the absence of(More)
The impact of ploidy on adaptation is a central issue in evolutionary biology. While many eukaryotic organisms exist as diploids, with two sets of gametic genomes residing in the same nucleus, most basidiomycete fungi exist as dikaryons in which the two genomes exist in separate nuclei that are physically paired and that divide in a coordinated manner(More)
The widespread deployment of antimicrobial agents in medicine and agriculture is nearly always followed by the evolution of resistance to these agents in the pathogen. With the limited availability of antifungal drugs and the increasing incidence of opportunistic fungal infections, the emergence of drug resistance in fungal pathogens poses a serious public(More)
Like other microorganisms, fungi exist in populations that are adaptable. Under the selection imposed by antifungal drugs, drug-sensitive fungal pathogens frequently evolve resistance. Although the molecular mechanisms of resistance are well-characterized, there are few measurements of the impact of these mechanisms on pathogen fitness in different(More)
We followed adaptation in experimental microbial populations to inhibitory concentrations of an antimicrobial drug. The evolution of drug resistance was accompanied in all cases by changes in gene expression that persisted in the absence of the drug; the new patterns of gene expression were constitutive. The changes in gene expression occurred in four(More)
Establishing the conditions that promote the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation has long been a goal in evolutionary biology. In ecological speciation, reproductive isolation between populations evolves as a by-product of divergent selection and the resulting environment-specific adaptations. The leading genetic model of reproductive(More)