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The evolution of drug resistance is an important process that affects clinical outcomes. Resistance to fluconazole, the most widely used antifungal, is often associated with acquired aneuploidy. Here we provide a longitudinal study of the prevalence and dynamics of gross chromosomal rearrangements, including aneuploidy, in the presence and absence of(More)
The dissemination and persistence of drug-resistant organisms in nature depends on the relative fitness of sensitive and resistant genotypes. While resistant genotypes are expected to be at an advantage compared to less resistant genotypes in the presence of drug, resistance may incur a cost; resistant genotypes may be at a disadvantage in the absence of(More)
Establishing the conditions that promote the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation has long been a goal in evolutionary biology. In ecological speciation, reproductive isolation between populations evolves as a by-product of divergent selection and the resulting environment-specific adaptations. The leading genetic model of reproductive(More)
We show that mode of selection, degree of dominance of mutations, and ploidy are determining factors in the evolution of resistance to the antifungal drug fluconazole in yeast. In experiment 1, yeast populations were subjected to a stepwise increase in fluconazole concentration over 400 generations. Under this regimen, two mutations in the same two(More)
We tested the hypothesis that the time course of the evolution of antifungal drug resistance depends on the ploidy of the fungus. The experiments were designed to measure the initial response to the selection imposed by the antifungal drug fluconazole up to and including the fixation of the first resistance mutation in populations of Saccharomyces(More)
Divergent adaptation can be associated with reproductive isolation in speciation [1]. We recently demonstrated the link between divergent adaptation and the onset of reproductive isolation in experimental populations of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae evolved from a single progenitor in either a high-salt or a low-glucose environment [2]. Here,(More)
BACKGROUND An open, focal issue in evolutionary biology is how reproductive isolation and speciation are initiated; elucidation of mechanisms with empirical evidence has lagged behind theory. Under ecological speciation, reproductive isolation between populations is predicted to evolve incidentally as a by-product of adaptation to divergent environments.(More)
Epistatic interactions in which the phenotypic effect of an allele is conditional on its genetic background have been shown to play a central part in various evolutionary processes. In a previous study (J. B. Anderson et al., Curr. Biol. 20:1383-1388, 2010; J. R. Dettman, C. Sirjusingh, L. M. Kohn, and J. B. Anderson, Nature 447:585-588, 2007), beginning(More)
Mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation in populations and yet they remain unobservable and buried in the past. Long-lived individuals of Armillaria gallica, a common opportunistic fungal pathogen of tree roots in temperate forests of the northern hemisphere, provide a spatial context for examining the mutational dynamic. Each individual of(More)
We have calculated the ground state energy of the hydrogen molecule using the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method of solving the Schrodinger equation, without the use of the Born-Oppenheimer or any other adiabatic approximations. The wave function sampling was carried out in the full 12-dimensional configuration space of the four particles (two electrons and(More)