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Activation of the p38 MAP kinase pathways is crucial for the adaptation of mammalian cells to changes in the osmolarity of the environment. Here we identify SAP97/hDlg, the mammalian homologue of the Drosophila tumour suppressor Dlg, as a physiological substrate for the p38gamma MAP kinase (SAPK3/p38gamma) isoform. SAP97/hDlg is a scaffold protein that(More)
Immediate early gene (IEG) expression is coordinated by multiple MAP kinase signaling pathways in a signal specific manner. Stress-activated p38α MAP kinase is implicated in transcriptional regulation of IEGs via MSK-mediated CREB phosphorylation. The protein kinases downstream to p38, MAPKAP kinase (MK) 2 and MK3 have been identified to regulate gene(More)
The physiological functions and substrates of the calcium-dependent protease calpain remain only partly understood. The mu- and m-calpains consist of a mu- or m-80-kDa large subunit (genes Capn1 and Capn2), and a common 28-kDa small subunit (Capn4). To assess the role of calpain in migration, we used fibroblasts obtained from Capn4(-/-) mouse embryos. The(More)
Pathophysiological conditions such as cerebral ischemia trigger the production of new neurons from the neurogenic niche within the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus. The functional significance of ischemia-induced neurogenesis is believed to be the regeneration of lost cells, thus contributing to post-ischemia recovery. However, the cell signaling(More)
Many distributions of dental variables exhibit positive skew and variance heterogeneity. Although the use of parametric tests on data with these disturbances usually does not pose a problem with respect to alpha error level, transformation of data sometimes increases power. Occasionally one or both of these expectations do not hold and it becomes(More)
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