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Larval Xenopus laevis were exposed to one of four concentrations of atrazine (0, 1, 10, or 25 microg/L, 11 replicate tanks per treatment, 60-65 larvae per replicate) dissolved in an artificial pond water (frog embryo teratogenesis assay- Xenopus [FETAX]) medium beginning 48 h after hatching until the completion of metamorphosis. Separate groups of larvae(More)
The herbicide atrazine is widely used in agriculture for the production of corn and other crops. Because of its physical and chemical properties, atrazine is found in small concentrations in surface waters--habitats for some species. A number of reports on the effects of atrazine on aquatic vertebrates, mostly amphibians, have been published, yet there is(More)
The ultrastructure of testicular cells of adult male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) exposed to either estradiol (0.1 microg/L) or 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl-amino-s-triazine (atrazine; 10 or 100 microg/L) was examined by electron microscopy and compared to plasma concentrations of the steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2),(More)
Some investigators have suggested that the triazine herbicide atrazine can cause demasculinization of male amphibians via upregulation of the enzyme aromatase. Male adult African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) were exposed to three nominal concentrations of atrazine (1, 25, or 250 microg atrazine/l) for 36 days, and testicular aromatase activity and CYP19(More)
Embryos of the green frog (Rana clamitans) were collected from the field and exposed to 1 of 6 water-borne treatments for 273 d (mid July 2001 to mid April 2002). The treatments were 0, 10, or 25 microg/L atrazine, 0.005% ethanol (EtOH), or 0.1 mg/L estradiol or dihydrotestosterone carried in 0.005% EtOH. Treatments were applied in a static renewal system(More)
The triazine herbicide atrazine has been hypothesized to disrupt sexual development in frogs by up-regulating aromatase activity, resulting in greater estradiol (E2) concentrations and causing feminization in males. The goal of this study was to collect native ranid frogs from atrazine-exposed ponds and determine whether relationships exist between measured(More)
We investigated dose-dependent effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) on habituation in the Texas toad, Bufo speciosus. Additionally, we determined changes in plasma and brain levels of alpha-MSH following peripheral administration of the peptide or following exposure to an ether stressor. The ability of alpha-MSH to facilitate(More)
We investigated the ability of various melanocortin peptides and corticosterone to influence habituation of prey-catching behavior in the toad, Bufo cognatus. Male toads were injected with various melanocortin peptide fragments or corticosterone 30 min prior to acquisition. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH[1-39]), ACTH[4-10], and N-acetyl ACTH[1-13] amide(More)
Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) promote habituation of prey-catching behavior in toads. We tested the hypothesis that habituation is associated with alterations in the activity of alpha-MSH neurons in a toad, Bufo cognatus. We used immunocytochemistry and RIA to determine the organization and distribution of(More)
Stress inhibits feeding behavior in all vertebrates. Data from mammals suggest an important role for hypothalamic neuropeptides, in particular the melanocortins and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-like peptides, in mediating stress-induced inhibition of feeding. The effects of CRH on food intake are evolutionarily ancient, as this peptide inhibits(More)