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The limiting distribution of the normalized number of comparisons used by Quick-sort to sort an array of n numbers is known to be the unique fixed point with zero mean of a certain distributional transformation S. We study the convergence to the limiting distribution of the sequence of distributions obtained by iterating the transformation S, beginning with… (More)

Using a recursive approach, we obtain a simple exact expression for the L 2-distance from the limit in Régnier's [5] classical limit theorem for the number of key comparisons required by QuickSort. A previous study by Fill and Janson [1] using a similar approach found that the d2-distance is of order between n −1 log n and n −1/2 , and another by Neininger… (More)

For a large class of examples arising in statistical ph~ics known as attnxtiue spin @ems (e.g., the Ising model), one seeks to sample from a probability distribution T on an enormously large state space, but elementary sampling is ruled out by the infeaaibility of calculating an appropriate normalizing constant. The same difficulty arises in computer… (More)

Using Fourier analysis, we prove that the limiting distribution of the standardized random number of comparisons used by Quicksort to sort an array of n numbers has an everywhere positive and infinitely differentiable density f , and that each derivative f (k) enjoys superpolynomial decay at ±∞. In particular, each f (k) is bounded. Our method is… (More)

The number of comparisons X n used by Quicksort to sort an array of n distinct numbers has mean µ n of order n log n and standard deviation of order n. Using different methods, Régnier and Rösler each showed that the normalized variate Y n := (X n −µ n)/n converges in distribution, say to Y ; the distribution of Y can be characterized as the unique fixed… (More)

Total path length, or search cost, for a rooted tree is defined as the sum of all root-to-node distances. Let T n be the total path length for a random recursive tree of order n. Mahmoud (1991) showed that W n := (T n − E[T n ])/n converges almost surely and in L 2 to a nondegenerate limiting random variable W. Here we give recurrence relations for the… (More)

- James Allen Fill
- 2007

A well-known theorem usually attributed to Keilson states that, for an irreducible continuous-time birth-and-death chain on the nonnegative integers and any d, the passage time from state 0 to state d is distributed as a sum of d independent exponential random variables. Until now, no probabilistic proof of the theorem has been known. In this paper we use… (More)

The limiting distribution µ of the normalized number of key comparisons required by the Quicksort sorting algorithm is known to be the unique fixed point of a certain distributional transformation T —unique, that is, subject to the constraints of zero mean and finite variance. We show that a distribution is a fixed point of T if and only if it is the… (More)