James Allen Byrd

Learn More
Clostridium perfringens (CP) is the etiologic agent of necrotic enteritis (NE). Clinical signs of this disease include depression, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and severe necrosis of the intestinal tract. Understanding the disease progression of NE has been difficult due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple factors (dietary components,(More)
The crop is a known source of Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination. We evaluated the use of selected organic acids (0.5% acetic, lactic, or formic) in drinking water during a simulated 8-h pretransport feed withdrawal (FW). Salmonella typhimurium was recovered from 53/100 control crops and from 45/100 of crops from acetic acid-treated broilers.(More)
Our laboratory is evaluating the efficacy of direct-fed microbials (DFM) and phytogenic products to control Clostridium perfringens, a gram-positive organism associated with decreased performance and morbidity and mortality associated with necrotic enteritis, as well as some recent human food safety issues. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate a DFM(More)
Clostridium perfringens is the etiologic agent of necrotic enteritis (NE) and is ubiquitous in nature. The incidence of NE has increased in countries and commercial companies that have stopped using antibiotic growth promoters. The mechanisms of colonization of C. perfringens and the factors involved in onset of NE are not fully understood. Previously, our(More)
Laying hens are typically induced to molt to begin a new egg-laying cycle by withdrawing feed for up to 12 to 14 d. Fasted hens are more susceptible to colonization and tissue invasion by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. Much of this increased incidence in fasted hens is thought to be due to changes in the native intestinal microflora. An(More)
Salmonella causes an estimated 1.3 million human foodborne illnesses and more than 500 deaths each year in the United States, representing an annual estimated cost to the economy of approximately $2.4 billion. Salmonella enterica comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. With this genetic and environmental diversity, serotypes are adapted to live in a variety of(More)
Campylobacter jejuni, a common commensal in chickens, is one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. The aims of this investigation were twofold. First, we sought to determine whether mutations in the C. jejuni ciaB and pldA virulence-associated genes impaired the organism's ability to colonize chickens. Second, we sought to(More)
Previous research has identified cecal and intestinal contents as sources for Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcasses in the processing plant. During the present study, we evaluated the crop contents of preharvest market-age broilers as a potential reservoir of field-derived Campylobacter in the processing plant. Crops were collected aseptically(More)
A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the change in prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses during processing. A structured literature search of 8 electronic databases using the key words for "Campylobacter," "chicken," and "processing" identified 1,734 unique citations. Abstracts were screened for relevance by 2 independent reviewers.(More)
AIMS To determine if the purported deaminase inhibitors diphenyliodonium chloride (DIC) and thymol reduce the growth and survivability of Campylobacter. METHODS AND RESULTS Growth rates of Campylobacter jejuni and Camp. coli were reduced compared to unsupplemented controls during culture in Muellar-Hinton broth supplemented with 0.25 micromol DIC or(More)