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Populations of Escherichia coli, initiated with a single clone and maintained for long periods in glucose-limited continuous culture, developed extensive polymorphisms. In one population, examined after 765 generations, two majority and two minority types were identified. Stable mixed populations were reestablished from the isolated strains. Factors(More)
Plasma GSH and GSSG concentrations were examined after the administration of compounds that deplete intracellular GSH either by adduct formation or by production of oxidative stress. A modified assay based on the GSSG reductase method was developed that minimizes the artifactual auto-oxidation of GSH to GSSG and mixed disulfides by rapid addition of(More)
An ultrasensitive HPLC method has been developed for measuring NADP+, NADPH, NAD+, and NADH. A simple, rapid reaction of the oxidized nucleotides with cyanide in basic solution leads to two stable fluorescent products and allows all four nucleotides to be separated and quantitated on one chromatogram. Furthermore, only one extraction is needed, rather than(More)
Hepatic glutathione turnover and the efflux of glutathione from the liver into bile and blood were measured in male Sprague-Dawley rats in vivo. In fed rats the efflux of glutathione into blood, calculated from the hepatic arteriovenous concentration gradient and hepatic blood flow, amounted to 12.4 +/- 1.4 nmoles min X gm liver. Together with the excretion(More)
Pyridine nucleotides are critical during oxidative stress due to their roles in reductive reactions and energetics. The aim of the present study was to examine pyridine nucleotide changes in six brain regions of mice after an intracerebroventricular injection of the oxidative stress inducing agent, t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH). A secondary aim was to(More)
MAOA and MAOB are key iso-enzymes that degrade biogenic and dietary amines. MAOA preferentially oxidizes serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE), whereas MAOB preferentially oxidizes beta-phenylethylamine (PEA). Both forms can oxidize dopamine (DA). A mutation in MAOA results in a clinical phenotype characterized by borderline(More)
MPP+ has been reported to inhibit reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase in mitochondria, which results in the formation of O2(.-). The current report demonstrates that H2O2 and HO. are also products of MPP+ interaction with NADH dehydrogenase. It is possible that MPP. formation precedes the formation of some of these active oxygen(More)
Salvia miltiorrhiza (Labiatae, Laminaceae), danshen, is an annual sage mainly found in China and neighboring countries. The crude drug (dried root) and its preparations are currently used in China to treat patients suffering from heart attack, angina pectoris, stroke and some other conditions. The use of S. miltiorrhiza has been increasing in the management(More)
Populations of Escherichia coli containing a small non-conjugative plasmid were grown in carbon-limited continuous culture. For all plasmids tested the presence of the plasmid lowered the growth rate of the host bacterium, and the proportion of plasmid-containing organisms in the total population declined initially. However, periodically, adaptive changes(More)
The mechanism of acrolein-induced lipid peroxidation is unknown. This study found that acrolein and its glutathione adduct, glutathionylpropionaldehyde, induce oxygen radical formation. These oxygen radicals may be responsible for the induction of lipid peroxidation by acrolein. The enzymes xanthine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase were found to interact(More)