James A. Shapiro

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It has been a decade since multicellularity was proposed as a general bacterial trait. Intercellular communication and multicellular coordination are now known to be widespread among prokaryotes and to affect multiple phenotypes. Many different classes of signaling molecules have been identified in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species. Bacteria have(More)
Islet cell Ag 512 (ICA512) is a recombinant human Ag that was isolated from an islet cDNA expression library by screening with human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus sera. Specificity of reaction with diabetic sera was demonstrated initially by immunoprecipitation with a small number of diabetic and normal serum samples. To permit quantitative and rapid(More)
Islet cell autoantigen (ICA) 512 is a novel autoantigen of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) which is homologous to receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases (++PTPases). We show that ICA 512 is an intrinsic membrane protein of secretory granules expressed in insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells as well as in virtually all other(More)
The last 50 years of molecular genetics have produced an abundance of new discoveries and data that make it useful to revisit some basic concepts and assumptions in our thinking about genomes and evolution. Chief among these observations are the complex modularity of genome organization, the biological ubiquity of mobile and repetitive DNA sequences, and(More)
The genome has traditionally been treated as a Read-Only Memory (ROM) subject to change by copying errors and accidents. In this review, I propose that we need to change that perspective and understand the genome as an intricately formatted Read-Write (RW) data storage system constantly subject to cellular modifications and inscriptions. Cells operate under(More)
Our isolate of Tn7 (named Tn7S) contains an IS1 insertion, and this IS1 can be converted into Tn9. In vitro and in vivo deletions of Tn7S and Tn7S:: Tn9 define regions of the transposon required for antibiotic resistance and transposition. Complementation of deletion mutants by cloned Tn7 fragments indicates the existence of two regions, denoted tnp7A and(More)
The high degree of organization in mature bacterial colonies suggests specific interactions between the cells during colony development. We have used time-lapse video microscopy to find evidence for cell-cell interactions. In its initial stages, Escherichia coli K-12 colony morphogenesis displayed control of the geometry of cell growth and involved intimate(More)
There are clear theoretical reasons and many well-documented examples which show that repetitive, DNA is essential for genome function. Generic repeated signals in the DNA are necessary to format expression of unique coding sequence files and to organise additional functions essential for genome replication and accurate transmission to progeny cells.(More)
The results of molecular genetics have frequently been difficult to explain by conventional evolutionary theory. New findings about the genetic conservation of protein structure and function across very broad taxonomic boundaries, the mosaic structure of genomes and genetic loci, and the molecular mechanisms of genetic change all point to a view of(More)
A DNA cloning approach was taken to identify islet cell protein antigens that are recognized specifically by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) sera. A human islet cDNA library was generated and screened with diabetic sera. In this article, identification of two clones is described. Proteins expressed by these lambda phages appeared to react(More)