James A. Ruth

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The effects of cocaine on Y-maze activity and heart rate have been examined in four inbred strains of mouse (BALB, C57BL, C3H and DBA). In addition, brain [3H]-cocaine concentrations were measured at the time of maximal response to cocaine. Cocaine produced a dose-related increase in Y-maze cross activity in C3H, DBA and C57BL, with C3H mice being(More)
The cocaine sensitivity of male and female long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice, which have been selectively bred for differential ethanol-induced "sleep-time," was examined in a battery of behavioral and physiological tests. Differences between these two mouse lines were subtle and were seen primarily at high doses. At high doses, SS mice were more(More)
It has previously been reported that isolated rat hepatocytes rapidly and completely metabolize high concentrations of 4-hydroxy-2,3-(E)-nonenal (4-HNE). However, until this report, the degree to which oxidative-reductive and nonoxidative metabolic pathways function in the depletion of 4-HNE by isolated rat hepatocytes has been speculative. The objective of(More)
1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a gas used heavily in the rubber and plastics industry. BD and its epoxide metabolites have been shown to be carcinogenic and mutagenic in rodents, and BD has been classified by IARC as a group 2A carcinogen. We have examined the role of stereochemistry in species-dependent metabolism and toxicity of BD. Diastereo- and enantioselective(More)
The effect of chloride ion on the transport of [3H]dopamine into synaptic vesicles purified from rat striatum has been evaluated. The inclusion of 10 mM chloride ion in the incubation medium produced a 100% increase in temperature-sensitive [3H]dopamine uptake into synaptic vesicles from approximately 1800 pmol/mg to 3600 pmol/mg of protein. Half-maximal(More)
The relative ability of cocaine, tropacocaine and amphetamine to inhibit the uptake of [3H]norepinephrine (NE), [3H]dopamine (DA) and [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) was examined in whole brain synaptosomes from BALB, C3H, C57BL and DBA inbred mouse strains. With inhibition of [3H]NE uptake, synaptosomes from BALB and C57 mice were substantially more(More)
To explore drug-melanin interactions, we examined the in vitro tyrosinase-mediated formation of melanin from tyrosine in the presence of the 3H-cocaine (3H-COC), 3H-flunitrazepam (3H-FLU), and 3H-nicotine (3H-NIC) at 10-100,000 ng/mL. Polymerization in the presence of 10 or 100 ng/mL of each drug resulted in almost complete drug incorporation into the(More)
1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a gas used widely in the rubber and plastics industry as an intermediate in production processes and has been detected in automobile exhaust and cigarette smoke. BD requires metabolic activation to exert toxicity and has been shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. IARC has classified BD as a group 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans)(More)
1,3-Butadiene (BD), a gas used in the production of rubber and plastics, induces a high incidence of leukemias and lymphomas in B6C3F1 mice. Because of the potential involvement of the hematopoietic system in response to BD, we have examined metabolism of BD by B6C3F1 mouse and human bone marrow and by purified human myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme rich in(More)
Potential interactions between opiate peptides and catecholamines in mammalian heart were examined using isolated spontaneously beating rat atria as a test system. Methionine-enkephalin (ME), leucine-enkephalin (LE), phe-met-arg-phe amide (FMRFamide), D-ala2, N-methyl-phe4, met (O)5-ol-enkephalin (FK 33-834), methionine-enkephalin arg6 arg7 (ME arg6 arg7)(More)