James A. Proudfoot

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BACKGROUND Theories of brain abnormality in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have focused on underconnectivity as an explanation for social, language, and behavioral deficits but are based mainly on studies of older autistic children and adults. METHODS In 94 ASD and typical toddlers ages 1 to 4 years, we examined the microstructure (indexed by fractional(More)
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a central role in the neural circuit control of behavioral reinforcement. Though considered a dopaminergic nucleus, the VTA contains substantial heterogeneity in neurotransmitter type, containing also GABA and glutamate neurons. Here, we used a combinatorial viral approach to transsynaptically label afferents to(More)
OBJECTIVE Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain frequently occur in tandem, the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating this comorbidity are poorly understood. Because excessive inflammation occurs in both conditions, we examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of inflammatory response mediators interleukin 1-beta(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to test the transcutaneous noninvasive vagus nerve stimulator (nVNS) (gammaCore©) device to determine if it modulates the peripheral immune system, as has been previously published for implanted vagus nerve stimulators. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 20 healthy males and females were randomized to receive either(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of precore (PC) and core promoter (CP) mutations in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) and their impact on liver disease is incompletely defined in the United States. METHODS A retrospective chart review using a cross-sectional approach of 1,186 CHB patients was conducted. RESULTS Of 926 patients(More)
Background. There is a need for increased palliative care training during pediatric residency. Objective. In this pilot study, we created a comprehensive experiential model to teach palliative care skills to pediatric residents. Our Comfort Care Modules (CCMs) address pediatric palliative care (PPC) topics of breaking bad news, dyspnea, anxiety, pain(More)
"Academic genealogy" refers to the linking of scientists and scholars based on their dissertation supervisors. We propose that this concept can be applied to medical training and that this "medical academic genealogy" may influence the landscape of the peer-reviewed literature. We performed a comprehensive PubMed search to identify US authors who have(More)
A Quality Improvement bundle was implemented with the goal of standardizing the multidisciplinary approach to delivery room management. We used a Pre-Post Quality Improvement initiative with the following aims: (1) Placement of a functioning pulse oximeter by two minutes after birth, (2) Delayed intubation, (3) Normothermia on Neonatal Intensive Care Unit(More)
The core premise of evidence-based medicine is that clinical decisions are informed by the peer-reviewed literature. To extract meaningful conclusions from this literature, one must first understand the various forms of biases inherent within the process of peer review. We performed an exhaustive search that identified articles exploring the question of(More)
BACKGROUND The paradigm of evidence-based medicine dictates that clinical practice should reflect the shifting landscape of the peer-reviewed literature. Here, we examined the extent to which this premise is fulfilled as it pertains to the surgical resection of high-grade gliomas (HGGs). OBJECTIVE We assessed trends in published literature regarding HGG(More)