James A Proudfoot

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BACKGROUND Theories of brain abnormality in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have focused on underconnectivity as an explanation for social, language, and behavioral deficits but are based mainly on studies of older autistic children and adults. METHODS In 94 ASD and typical toddlers ages 1 to 4 years, we examined the microstructure (indexed by fractional(More)
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays a central role in the neural circuit control of behavioral reinforcement. Though considered a dopaminergic nucleus, the VTA contains substantial heterogeneity in neurotransmitter type, containing also GABA and glutamate neurons. Here, we used a combinatorial viral approach to transsynaptically label afferents to(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to test the transcutaneous noninvasive vagus nerve stimulator (nVNS) (gammaCore©) device to determine if it modulates the peripheral immune system, as has been previously published for implanted vagus nerve stimulators. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 20 healthy males and females were randomized to receive either(More)
OBJECTIVE Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain frequently occur in tandem, the pathophysiological mechanisms mediating this comorbidity are poorly understood. Because excessive inflammation occurs in both conditions, we examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of inflammatory response mediators interleukin 1-beta(More)
"Academic genealogy" refers to the linking of scientists and scholars based on their dissertation supervisors. We propose that this concept can be applied to medical training and that this "medical academic genealogy" may influence the landscape of the peer-reviewed literature. We performed a comprehensive PubMed search to identify US authors who have(More)
The core premise of evidence-based medicine is that clinical decisions are informed by the peer-reviewed literature. To extract meaningful conclusions from this literature, one must first understand the various forms of biases inherent within the process of peer review. We performed an exhaustive search that identified articles exploring the question of(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate factors during acute presumed childhood encephalitis that are associated with development of long-term neurological sequelae. METHODS A total of 217 patients from Rady Children's Hospital San Diego with suspected encephalitis who met criteria for the California Encephalitis Project were identified. A cohort of 99 patients (40(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of precore (PC) and core promoter (CP) mutations in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) and their impact on liver disease is incompletely defined in the United States. METHODS A retrospective chart review using a cross-sectional approach of 1,186 CHB patients was conducted. RESULTS Of 926 patients(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate factors associated with the development of epilepsy after resolution of presumed childhood encephalitis. METHODS A total of 217 patients with suspected encephalitis who met criteria for the California Encephalitis Project were identified. Evaluable outcome information was available for 99 patients (40 girls, 59 boys, ages 2 months to(More)
OBJECTIVES The long-term goal for chronic hepatitis B patients is to maintain viral suppression in order to reduce disease progression risk. Because patients with previous treatment failure may have multiple viral resistance mutations, finding effective therapy is challenging. Because recent studies have shown that the combination of entecavir and tenofovir(More)
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