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Although cellular proteins conjugated to K48-linked Ub chains are targeted to proteasomes, proteins conjugated to K63-ubiquitin chains are directed to lysosomes. However, pure 26S proteasomes bind and degrade K48- and K63-ubiquitinated substrates similarly. Therefore, we investigated why K63-ubiquitinated proteins are not degraded by proteasomes. We show(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether follow-up of patients recently discharged from the hospital as a result of acute asthma can be adequately provided by a respiratory specialist nurse compared to a respiratory doctor. DESIGN Single center, prospective, randomized controlled trial. SETTING District general hospital in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS One(More)
Atrophy occurs in specific muscles with inactivity (for example, during plaster cast immobilization) or denervation (for example, in patients with spinal cord injuries). Muscle wasting occurs systemically in older people (a condition known as sarcopenia); as a physiological response to fasting or malnutrition; and in many diseases, including chronic(More)
Protein modification by one or more ubiquitin chains serves a critical signalling function across a wide range of cellular processes. Specificity within this system is conferred by ubiquitin E3 ligases, which target the substrates. Their activity is balanced by deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs), which remove ubiquitin from both substrates and ligases. The(More)
The regulated turnover of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident membrane proteins requires their extraction from the membrane lipid bilayer and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Cleavage within the transmembrane domain provides an attractive mechanism to facilitate protein dislocation but has never been shown for endogenous substrates. To determine(More)
The US11 gene product of human cytomegalovirus promotes viral immune evasion by hijacking the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. US11 initiates dislocation of newly translocated MHC I from the ER to the cytosol for proteasome-mediated degradation. Despite the critical role for ubiquitin in this degradation pathway, the(More)
The degradation of ubiquitinated proteins by 26 S proteasomes requires ATP hydrolysis. To investigate if the six proteasomal ATPases function independently or in a cyclic manner, as proposed recently, we used yeast mutants that prevent ATP binding to Rpt3, Rpt5, or Rpt6. Although proteasomes contain six ATPase subunits, each of these single mutations caused(More)
Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) control adaptation to low oxygen environments by activating genes involved in metabolism, angiogenesis, and redox homeostasis. The finding that HIFs are also regulated by small molecule metabolites highlights the need to understand the complexity of their cellular regulation. Here we use a forward genetic(More)
Prion diseases are associated with the conversion of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) to toxic β-sheet isoforms (PrP(Sc)), which are reported to inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Accordingly, UPS substrates accumulate in prion-infected mouse brains, suggesting impairment of the 26S proteasome. A direct interaction between its 20S core particle(More)
Ubiquitylation of membrane receptors is recognised as a critical post-translational modification, governing their regulation and function. Following ubiquitylation, membrane proteins may be internalised, recycled or degraded via lysosomal or proteasomal pathways. Viruses have appropriated these cellular pathways as a mechanism of immune evasion. RING(More)