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Energy use, mainly to reverse ion movements in neurons, is a fundamental constraint on brain information processing. Trafficking of mitochondria to locations in neurons where there are large ion fluxes is essential for powering neural function. Mitochondrial trafficking is regulated by Ca2+ entry through ionotropic glutamate receptors, but the underlying(More)
Copy number variation (CNV) at the 15q11.2 region has been identified as a significant risk locus for neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the individual roles for genes at this locus in nervous system development, function and connectivity remain poorly understood.(More)
The axon initial segment (AIS), a site of action potential initiation, undergoes activity-dependent homeostatic repositioning to fine-tune neuronal activity. However, little is known about the behavior of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) at synapses made onto the axon and especially the AIS. Here, we study the clustering and lateral diffusion of GABAARs in the AIS(More)
The strength of synaptic inhibition depends partly on the number of GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs) found at synaptic sites. The trafficking of GABA(A)Rs within the endocytic pathway is a key determinant of surface GABA(A)R number and is altered in neuropathologies, such as cerebral ischemia. However, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that(More)
Previous studies of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal patients have demonstrated significant reactivity to a cell surface or extracellular arginine-specific protease of Porphyromonas gingivalis which migrates as an approximately 50-kDa band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. In the present report, two forms of the(More)
For an integer w ≥ 2, a radix 2 representation is called a width-w nonadjacent form (w-NAF, for short) if each nonzero digit is an odd integer with absolute value less than 2 w−1 , and of any w consecutive digits, at most one is nonzero. In elliptic curve cryptography, the w-NAF window method is used to efficiently compute nP where n is an integer and P is(More)
It is known that every positive integer n can be represented as a finite sum of the form n = P ai2 i , where ai ∈ {0, 1, −1} for all i, and no two consecutive ai's are non-zero. Such sums are called nonadja-cent representations. Nonadjacent representations are useful in efficiently implementing elliptic curve arithmetic for cryptographic applications. In(More)
An online algorithm is presented that produces an optimal radix-2 representation of an input integer n using digits from the set D ,u = {a ∈ Z : ≤ a ≤ u}, where ≤ 0 and u ≥ 1. The algorithm works by scanning the digits of the binary representation of n from left-to-right (i.e., from most-significant to least-significant). The output representation is(More)
The strength of synaptic inhibition can be controlled by the stability and endocytosis of surface and synaptic GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)Rs), but the surface receptor dynamics that underpin GABA(A)R recruitment to dendritic endocytic zones (EZs) have not been investigated. Stabilization of GABA(A)Rs at EZs is likely to be regulated by receptor interactions(More)
Internet geolocation technology aims to determine the physical (geographic) location of Internet users and devices. It is currently proposed or in use for a wide variety of purposes, including targeted marketing, restricting digital content sales to authorized jurisdictions, and security applications such as reducing credit card fraud. This raises questions(More)