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BACKGROUND To determine whether a computerized clinical documentation system (CDS): 1) decreased time spent charting and increased time spent in patient care; 2) decreased medication errors; 3) improved clinical decision making; 4) improved quality of documentation; and/or 5) improved shift to shift nursing continuity. METHODS Before and after(More)
We have previously described the relationships of serum and saliva concentrations of caffeine, theophylline and total methylxanthines in premature infants. We have now extended the previous studies in order to validate the previously derived relationships with new data. The new serum to saliva relationships, derived using regression and ratio models, are(More)
The pharmacokinetics of theophylline were examined in eight low-birth-weight infants (gestation: 26-32 weeks: birth-weight: 887-1,480 gm), who received the drug for treatment of primary apnea. The drug was assayed by high pressure liquid chromatography. The final dosage was 1 to 3 mg/kg/6 hour at 25 to 37 days of age. At the time, theophylline had a(More)
This report compares six Doppler ultrasound measures of blood flow: Pourcelot's pulsatility index, Gosling's pulsatility index, area under the curve, systolic amplitude, diastolic amplitude, and mean amplitude. Recordings from an in vitro arterial model and from the anterior cerebral arteries in 33 newborn infants with asphyxia, intraventricular hemorrhage,(More)
We examined the clinical significance of noninvasive intracranial pressure measurements and pulsatility indices in 74 infants with confirmed IC-IVh. The intracranial pressure measurements were obtained using the applanation principle, and the pulsatility indices were calculated from the Doppler flow velocity tracings of the anterior cerebral artery.(More)
OBJECTIVE Dexamethasone is frequently used in premature neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, however little is known about its disposition in this population. METHODS We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone in 9 premature neonates with a mean gestational age of 27.3 weeks and a postnatal age of 21.8 days. RESULTS There was a strong(More)
The effect of prolonged (2 h) hypocarbia on cerebral blood flow, oxygen delivery, extraction, and consumption was studied in eight, 1- to 4-day-old piglets. Hyperventilation to PaCO2 less than 20 mm Hg acutely (30 min) decreased cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption. Cerebral oxygen consumption was subsequently restored via increases in cerebral blood(More)
Ten premature infants with respiratory distress developed a type of pulmonary lobar emphysema that is clinically and histologically distinct from interstitial or congenital lobar emphysema. In eight patients emphysema was noted in the right lower lobe, while in two the left upper lobe was affected. Five infants exhibited nonresolution of the emphysema and(More)
The objective of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of an extended interval aminoglycoside dosing guideline implemented in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A retrospective review of pharmacokinetic data on 44 patients led to the development of an extended interval aminoglycoside guideline utilizing a 5-mg/kg dose given at an interval(More)
The clinical features of 27 patients with early onset group B beta hemolytic streptococcus sepsis were reviewed. Fifteen presented with a clinical pattern indistinguishable from the idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome and were compared with 15 patients with IRDS. Rupture of membranes for greater than 12 hours prior to delivery occurred more often in(More)