James A Landro

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Glucokinase is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis, and small molecule allosteric activators of this enzyme represent a promising opportunity for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Systemically acting glucokinase activators (liver and pancreas) have been reported to be efficacious but in many cases present hypoglycaemia risk due to activation of the(More)
An estimated 1% of the global human population is infected by hepatitis C viruses (HCVs), and there are no broadly effective treatments for the debilitating progression of chronic hepatitis C. A serine protease located within the HCV NS3 protein processes the viral polyprotein at four specific sites and is considered essential for replication. Thus, it(More)
The gene (pcaB) for 3-carboxymuconate lactonizing enzyme (CMLE; 3-carboxymuconate cycloisomerase; EC 5.5.1.2) from Pseudomonas putida has been cloned into pMG27NS, a temperature-sensitive expression vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli N4830. The specific activity and kinetic parameters of the recombinant CMLE were comparable to those previously(More)
The mechanism of irreversible inactivation of mandelate racemase (MR) from Pseudomonas putida by alpha-phenylglycidate (alpha PGA) has been investigated stereochemically and crystallographically. The (R) and (S) enantiomers of alpha PGA were synthesized in high enantiomeric excess (81% ee and 83% ee, respectively) using Sharpless epoxidation chemistry.(More)
Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a protein kinase involved in maintaining energy homeostasis within cells. On the basis of human genetic association data, AMPK activators were pursued for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Identification of an indazole amide high throughput screening (HTS) hit followed by truncation to its(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a principal metabolic regulator affecting growth and response to cellular stress. Comprised of catalytic and regulatory subunits, each present in multiple forms, AMPK is best described as a family of related enzymes. In recent years, AMPK has emerged as a desirable target for modulation of numerous diseases, yet(More)
Infection by hepatitis C viruses (HCVs) is a serious medical problem with no broadly effective treatment available for the progression of chronic hepatitis. The catalytic activity of a viral serine protease located in the N-terminal one-third of nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is required for polyprotein processing at four site-specific junctions. The(More)
Tetrapeptide-based peptidomimetic compounds have been shown to effectively inhibit the hepatitis C virus NS3.4A protease without the need of a charged functionality. An aldehyde is used as a prototype reversible electrophilic warhead. The SAR of the P1 and P2 inhibitor positions is discussed.
GK (glucokinase) is an enzyme central to glucose metabolism that displays positive co-operativity to substrate glucose. Small-molecule GKAs (GK activators) modulate GK catalytic activity and glucose affinity and are currently being pursued as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes. GK progress curves monitoring product formation are linear up to 1 mM glucose, but(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 3 protein (NS3) is a 70-kDa multifunctional enzyme with three known catalytic activities segregated in two somewhat independent domains. The essential machinery of a serine protease is localized in the N-terminal one-third of the protein, and nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) and helicase activities reside in the(More)