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AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a principal metabolic regulator affecting growth and response to cellular stress. Comprised of catalytic and regulatory subunits, each present in multiple forms, AMPK is best described as a family of related enzymes. In recent years, AMPK has emerged as a desirable target for modulation of numerous diseases, yet(More)
The mechanism of irreversible inactivation of mandelate racemase (MR) from Pseudomonas putida by alpha-phenylglycidate (alpha PGA) has been investigated stereochemically and crystallographically. The (R) and (S) enantiomers of alpha PGA were synthesized in high enantiomeric excess (81% ee and 83% ee, respectively) using Sharpless epoxidation chemistry.(More)
Infection by hepatitis C viruses (HCVs) is a serious medical problem with no broadly effective treatment available for the progression of chronic hepatitis. The catalytic activity of a viral serine protease located in the N-terminal one-third of nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is required for polyprotein processing at four site-specific junctions. The(More)
Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a protein kinase involved in maintaining energy homeostasis within cells. On the basis of human genetic association data, AMPK activators were pursued for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Identification of an indazole amide high throughput screening (HTS) hit followed by truncation to its(More)
An estimated 1% of the global human population is infected by hepatitis C viruses (HCVs), and there are no broadly effective treatments for the debilitating progression of chronic hepatitis C. A serine protease located within the HCV NS3 protein processes the viral polyprotein at four specific sites and is considered essential for replication. Thus, it(More)
Glucokinase is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis, and small molecule allosteric activators of this enzyme represent a promising opportunity for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Systemically acting glucokinase activators (liver and pancreas) have been reported to be efficacious but in many cases present hypoglycaemia risk due to activation of the(More)
Over the past decade, high throughput screening (HTS) has become the focal point for discovery programs within the pharmaceutical industry. The role of this discipline has been and remains the rapid and efficient identification of lead chemical matter within chemical libraries for therapeutics development. Recent advances in molecular and computational(More)
The two preceding papers [Powers, V. M., Koo, C. W., Kenyon, G. L., Gerlt, J. A., & Kozarich, J. W. (1991) Biochemistry (first paper of three in this issue); Neidhart, D. J., Howell, P. L., Petsko, G. A., Powers, V. M., Li, R., Kenyon, G. L., & Gerlt, J. A. (1991) Biochemistry (second paper of three in this issue)] suggest that the active site of mandelate(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 3 protein (NS3) is a 70-kDa multifunctional enzyme with three known catalytic activities segregated in two somewhat independent domains. The essential machinery of a serine protease is localized in the N-terminal one-third of the protein, and nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) and helicase activities reside in the(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that serves as a pleotropic regulator of whole body energy homoeostasis. AMPK exists as a heterotrimeric complex, composed of a catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ), each present as multiple isoforms. In the present study, we compared the enzyme kinetics and(More)