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Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated.(More)
Representing the most common flavonoid consumed in the American diet, the flavan-3-ols and their polymeric condensation products, the proanthocyanidins, are regarded as functional ingredients in various beverages, whole and processed foods, herbal remedies and supplements. Their presence in food affects food quality parameters such as astringency,(More)
Proanthocyanidins extracted from hops (Humulus lupulus L. cv. Willamette) were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography using a step gradient of methanol, water, and acetone. The resulting fractions were analyzed by acid catalysis, electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry(More)
Accumulation and compositional changes of flavonols, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins were measured in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir in shaded and exposed treatments. In addition, extraction of these compounds into a model wine solution was measured. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard within a uniform zone of relatively low vigor vines.(More)
Ear-notch samples from 3,599 yearling heifers were collected to detect persistently infected (PI) animals with suspect bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Individual immunohistochemistry (IHC), individual antigen-capture enzyme-linked immmunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests with pooled ear-notch(More)
Little is known about the impact of temperature on proanthocyanidin (PA) accumulation in grape skins, despite its significance in berry composition and wine quality. Field-grown grapes (cv. Merlot) were cooled during the day or heated at night by +/-8 °C, from fruit set to véraison in three seasons, to determine the effect of temperature on PA accumulation.(More)
The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield(More)
Tissue samples (n = 25,050 total) from 23,256 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) collected statewide in Colorado were examined for chronic wasting disease (CWD) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed by Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. (brELISA), in a 2-phase(More)
In this study, the grape skin and seed proanthocyanidin profiles from Monastrell x Syrah grape (Vitis vinifera L.) crosses were determined. Concentration and compositional information in extracts was determined by reversed-phase HPLC after acid-catalyzed cleavage in the presence of excess phloroglucinol. In general, the proanthocyanidin compositions of(More)
In this study, microscale fermentations were conducted on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot. Five treatments were established varying from 0-100% crushed fruit (25% increments x 5 replicates). Caps were kept submerged throughout the experiment, and fermentation temperatures were maintained at 25 degrees C. Samples were collected throughout fermentation and from(More)