James A. Holdnack

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The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory factor(More)
The California Verbal Learning Test - second edition (CVLT-II) is one of the most widely used neuropsychological tests in North America. The present study evaluated the 1-month test-retest reliability and practice effects associated with the standard and alternate forms of the CVLT-II in a sample of 195 healthy adults. Eighty participants underwent repeat(More)
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-month trial examined the efficacy and safety of once-daily morning-dosed atomoxetine in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the efficacy of atomoxetine in ameliorating symptoms through the evening hours. Patients received once-daily atomoxetine (n = 250) or placebo (n =(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of atomoxetine on ADHD-related executive functions over a 6-month period using the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) for Adults, a normed, 40-item, self-report scale in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. METHOD In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, adults with ADHD received(More)
The psychometric criterion of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) generally involves having an unusually low score on memory testing (i.e., -1.5 SDs). However, healthy older adults can obtain low scores, particularly when multiple memory measures are administered. In turn, there is a substantial risk of psychometrically misclassifying MCI in healthy older(More)
In school settings, students are typically evaluated using group achievement tests, IQ scales, and college entrance exams that focus more on rote-verbal skills (e.g., vocabulary, mathematical facts) than on higher level executive functions (e.g., abstract thinking, problem solving). However, recent neuropsychological findings suggest that rote-knowledge(More)
Although the Wechsler Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) is a common component of most neuropsychological evaluations, there are many clinical situations where the complete administration of this battery is precluded by various constraints, including limitations of time and patient compliance. These constraints are particularly true for dementia evaluations involving(More)
Examination of measurement invariance tests the assumption that the model underlying a set of test scores is directly comparable across groups. The observation of measurement invariance provides fundamental evidence for the inference that scores on a test afford equivalent measurement of the same psychological traits among diverse groups. Groups may be(More)
Executive functions are thought to be the latest functions to mature. However, this view has not been tested by assessing simultaneously memory, perception of emotions, visuospatial perception, and visuoconstructional skills. NEPSY II norm data from 1000 5- to 16-year-old U.S. children were obtained. Fifteen NEPSY II subtests with no floor or ceiling(More)