James A. Holden

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Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis, produces outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that carry a cargo of virulence factors. In this study, the proteome of OMVs was determined by LC-MS/MS analyses of SDS-PAGE fractions, and a total of 151 OMV proteins were identified, with all but one likely to have originated from(More)
Force spectroscopy using the atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful technique for measuring physical properties and interaction forces at microbial cell surfaces. Typically for such a study, the point at which a force measurement will be made is located by first imaging the cell using AFM in contact mode. In this study, we image the bacterial cell(More)
The role of the macrophage in the immunopathology of periodontitis has not been well defined. In this study, we show that intraoral inoculation of mice with Porphyromonas gingivalis resulted in infection, alveolar bone resorption, and a significant increase in F4/80(+) macrophages in gingival and submandibular lymph node tissues. Macrophage depletion using(More)
Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the tooth's supporting tissues. Macrophages are important in chronic inflammatory conditions, infiltrating tissue and becoming polarized to an M1 or M2 phenotype. As responses to stimuli differ between these phenotypes, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium possesses a multi-copper-ion oxidase (multicopper oxidase), CueO (also known as CuiD), a periplasmic enzyme known to be required for resistance to copper ions. CueO from S. Typhimurium was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, and the purified protein exhibited a high cuprous oxidase activity. We(More)
A novel outer membrane protein-encoding gene was identified in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The predicted protein, SmpB, was encoded by a gene that contains regions of identity with that encoding the previously identified lipoprotein SmpA. However, the majority of the reading frame encoding SmpA and SmpB share no detectable similarity. Analysis of several(More)
SmpB is an outer membrane protein of Brachyspira hyodysentariae that is present in some strains of the bacterium. It shares the same locus as SmpA, but all strains tested to date contain either one protein or the other, never both. In this study we have evaluated the efficacy of vaccination with SmpB to elicit immune responses in mice and to protect against(More)
With the recent emergence of reports on resistant Gram-negative ‘superbugs’, infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria have been named as one of the most urgent global health threats due to the lack of effective and biocompatible drugs. Here, we show that a class of antimicrobial agents, termed ‘structurally nanoengineered(More)
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 are both central to the induction of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and various roles for IL-12 and IL-18 in control of intracellular microbial infections have been demonstrated. We used IL-12p40(-/-) and IL-18(-/-) mice to further investigate the role of IL-12 and IL-18 in control of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.(More)
Highly purified outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of the periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were produced using tangential flow ultrafiltration, ultracentrifugation and Optiprep density gradient separation. Cryo-TEM and light scattering showed OMVs to be single lipid-bilayers with modal diameters of 75(More)