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1. Long chain fatty acids have recently been identified as agonists for the G protein-coupled receptors GPR40 and GPR120. Here, we present the first description of GW9508, a small-molecule agonist of the fatty acid receptors GPR40 and GPR120. In addition, we also describe the pharmacology of GW1100, a selective GPR40 antagonist. These molecules were used to(More)
Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent fibrotic factor responsible for the synthesis of extracellular matrix. TGF-beta1 acts through the TGF-beta type I and type II receptors to activate intracellular mediators, such as Smad proteins, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. We(More)
Entry into mitosis by mammalian cells is triggered by the activation of the cdc2/cyclin B holoenzyme. This is accomplished by the specific dephosphorylation of key residues by the cdc25C phosphatase. The polo-like kinases are a family of serine/threonine kinases which are also implicated in the control of mitotic events, but their exact regulatory mechanism(More)
Screening of our internal compound collection for inhibitors of the transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) type I receptor (ALK5) identified several hits. Optimization of the dihydropyrroloimidazole hit 2 by introduction of a 2-pyridine and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl group gave 7, a selective ALK5 inhibitor. With this information, optimization of the(More)
Eotaxin has been found to bind exclusively to a single chemokine receptor, CCR3. Using expression sequence tag screening of an activated monocyte library, a second chemokine has been identified; it was expressed and purified from a Drosophila cell culture system and appears to only activate CCR3. Eotaxin-2, MPIF-2, or CKbeta-6, is a human CC chemokine with(More)
Several peptidic urotensin-II (UT) receptor antagonists exert 'paradoxical' agonist activity in recombinant cell- and tissue-based bioassay systems, likely the result of differential urotensin-II receptor (UT receptor) signal transduction/coupling efficiency between assays. The present study has examined this phenomenon in mammalian arteries and recombinant(More)
Galactose utilization in Streptomyces lividans was shown to be controlled by an operon that is induced in the presence of galactose and repressed by glucose. Two promoters, galP1 and galP2, which direct transcription of two distinct polycistronic transcripts, have been identified. galP1 is located immediately upstream of the operon and is induced in the(More)
With completion of the sequencing of the human and mouse genomes, the primary sequences of close to 400 non-olfactory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been determined. There are intensive efforts within the pharmaceutical industry to discover and develop new therapeutic agents acting via GPCRs. In addition, there is a concerted effort to identify(More)
To explore whether the genetic linkage between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) alleles and susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease might be attributable to a direct molecular interaction between ApoE and the amyloid peptide A beta, we have produced ApoE variants in Escherichia coli and studied their interactions with A beta under native conditions. When incubated(More)