James A. Covington

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Background. There has been an increasing interest in the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as potential surrogate markers of gut dysbiosis in gastrointestinal disease. Gut dysbiosis occurs when pathological imbalances in gut bacterial colonies precipitate disease and has been linked to the dysmetabolism of bile acids (BA) in the gut. BA metabolites(More)
The current diagnostic challenge with diagnosing hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is identifying those with minimal HE as opposed to the more clinically apparent covert/overt HE. Rifaximin, is an effective therapy but earlier identification and treatment of HE could prevent liver disease progression and hospitalization. Our pilot study aimed to analyse breath(More)
Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a common requirement in industry for which numerous methods are available. The electronic nose (e-nose) is an example. Rather than individual chemicals, the e-nose recognizes the 'aroma fingerprint' created by the collection of VOCs in samples, comparable to the human nose. We report on a novel application(More)
The fermentation of undigested foods in the large bowel, by its resident bacteria, results in the production of several chemicals including volatile gases. Perturbance in gut bacteria is known to influence colonic and metabolic health, but to determine this requires prolonged culture (often unsuccessful) or expensive genomic sequencing. Clearly this is not(More)
It is well known that the electronic nose can be used to identify differences between human health and disease for a range of disorders. We present a pilot study to investigate if the electronic nose and a newer technology, FAIMS (Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry), can be used to identify and help inform the treatment pathway for patients(More)
There is an ever increasing need to develop new tools to aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of human diseases. Such tools will ultimately reduce the cost of healthcare by identifying disease states more quickly and cheaply than current practices. One method showing promise is the analysis of gas-phase biomarkers from human breath, urine, sweat and stool(More)
Coeliac disease (CD), a T-cell-mediated gluten sensitive enteropathy, affects ∼ 1% of the UK population and can present with wide ranging clinical features, often being mistaken for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Heightened clinical awareness and serological screening identifies those with potential coeliac disease; the diagnosis is confirmed with duodenal(More)
OBJECTIVES A rapid test to diagnose Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) on hospital wards could minimize common but critical diagnostic delay. Field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is a portable mass spectrometry instrument that quickly analyses the chemical composition of gaseous mixtures (e.g., above a stool sample). Can FAIMS accurately(More)
BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves the role of bacteria. These bacteria ferment nonstarch polysaccharides in the colon producing a fermentation profile that through altered gut permeability can be traced in urine. We proposed to track the resultant volatile organic compounds or gases that emanate from urine using(More)