James A. Burns

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The widespread extinctions of large mammals at the end of the Pleistocene epoch have often been attributed to the depredations of humans; here we present genetic evidence that questions this assumption. We used ancient DNA and Bayesian techniques to reconstruct a detailed genetic history of bison throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Our(More)
The rich fossil record of horses has made them a classic example of evolutionary processes. However, while the overall picture of equid evolution is well known, the details are surprisingly poorly understood, especially for the later Pliocene and Pleistocene, c. 3 million to 0.01 million years (Ma) ago, and nowhere more so than in the Americas. There is no(More)
Lions were the most widespread carnivores in the late Pleistocene, ranging from southern Africa to the southern USA, but little is known about the evolutionary relationships among these Pleistocene populations or the dynamics that led to their extinction. Using ancient DNA techniques, we obtained mitochondrial sequences from 52 individuals sampled across(More)
OBJECTIVES The objectives were to assess the clinical performance and accuracy of a prototype fiberoptic transnasal laryngeal endoscope with an auxiliary optical system that allows images to be spatially calibrated. METHODS A novel fiberoptic endoscope was developed that projects green laser beams across the field of view from a separate optical channel.(More)
OBJECTIVES The 2-microm-wavelength thulium laser has recently been shown to be an effective cutting instrument in endolaryngeal surgery, although there is increased thermal trauma as compared with the carbon dioxide laser. This study investigated temperature changes and thermal trauma during thulium laser dissection of laryngeal tissue, with and without air(More)
OBJECTIVES The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is the premier dissecting instrument for hemostatic cutting and ablation during endolaryngeal surgery. However, microlaryngeal tangential dissection and office-based photoablation have been limited by the lack of a fiber-based delivery system. To address this limitation, a new laser was designed, which is a(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether the timing of early (≤6 months from time of nerve injury) vs. late (>6 months) injection medialization laryngoplasty impacts the need for subsequent open-neck reconstruction to restore vocal function in patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective chart review. METHODS A total of 112 outpatient(More)
Treatment of glottal papillomatosis and dysplasia was mirror-guided and performed in surgeons' offices in the 19th century. It migrated to the operating room in the 20th century to accommodate direct laryngoscopic surgery, which required assistants to administer anesthesia and procedural support. Presently, the primary treatment goals, which are disease(More)
OBJECTIVES Photoangiolytic lasers effectively treat glottal papillomatosis, but do not reliably prevent recurrence. Therefore, sublesional injections of the antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab (Avastin) were given to assess the effect on disease recurrence and phonatory function. METHODS A retrospective investigation was done in a pilot group of 10 adult(More)
Every critical advancement in direct laryngoscopic surgical technique has enhanced its precision. Among the most notable was Killian's seminal description of suspension laryngoscopy 90 years ago, which allowed for bimanual direct laryngoscopic surgery. Because of the technical difficulties encountered while performing suspension laryngoscopy, Brünings and(More)