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The widespread extinctions of large mammals at the end of the Pleistocene epoch have often been attributed to the depredations of humans; here we present genetic evidence that questions this assumption. We used ancient DNA and Bayesian techniques to reconstruct a detailed genetic history of bison throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Our(More)
Despite decades of research, the roles of climate and humans in driving the dramatic extinctions of large-bodied mammals during the Late Quaternary period remain contentious. Here we use ancient DNA, species distribution models and the human fossil record to elucidate how climate and humans shaped the demographic history of woolly rhinoceros, woolly(More)
OBJECTIVES The goal of this preliminary study was to determine whether neck surface electromyography (sEMG) is sensitive to possible changes in vocal hyperfunction associated with injection laryngoplasty, particularly with respect to alterations in the degree of vocal hyperfunction. METHODS Thirteen individuals undergoing office-based injection(More)
The rich fossil record of horses has made them a classic example of evolutionary processes. However, while the overall picture of equid evolution is well known, the details are surprisingly poorly understood, especially for the later Pliocene and Pleistocene, c. 3 million to 0.01 million years (Ma) ago, and nowhere more so than in the Americas. There is no(More)
OBJECTIVES There is increased interest in using cepstral-based acoustic measures for objective clinical voice assessment because of their apparent advantages over more time-honored methods, but there is a paucity of information about how these newer measures relate to underlying phonatory mechanisms. METHODS We investigated the relationships between the(More)
We present in-vivo 3D human vocal fold images with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Characterizing the extent and location of vocal fold lesions provides useful information in guiding surgeons during phonomicrosurgery. Previous studies showed that PS-OCT imaging can distinguish vocal fold lesions from normal tissue, but these(More)
A patient with dysthyroid eye disease presented with unilateral lid retraction secondary to a contralateral ptosis. While others have reported similar findings in various underlying disease processes, to the best of our knowledge this is the first case in the literature with dysthyroid ophthalmopathy, and the first where the results of surgical management(More)
Upper eyelid position, pupillary diameter, and visual field impairment were measured in 26 eyes with adult-onset blepharoptosis. The magnitude of superior visual field impairment was inversely proportional to the distance between the upper lid margin and the pupillary aperture. The distance between the upper lid and the central corneal reflex was the most(More)
OBJECTIVES Mandibular tori have been identified as a contributing factor in difficult exposure during intubation. However, no investigation has measured the effect of mandibular tori on glottic exposure during suspension microlaryngoscopy (SML). The objective of this study was to measure how the size and location of mandibular tori affect glottic exposure(More)
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