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The widespread extinctions of large mammals at the end of the Pleistocene epoch have often been attributed to the depredations of humans; here we present genetic evidence that questions this assumption. We used ancient DNA and Bayesian techniques to reconstruct a detailed genetic history of bison throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. Our(More)
The rich fossil record of horses has made them a classic example of evolutionary processes. However, while the overall picture of equid evolution is well known, the details are surprisingly poorly understood, especially for the later Pliocene and Pleistocene, c. 3 million to 0.01 million years (Ma) ago, and nowhere more so than in the Americas. There is no(More)
Lions were the most widespread carnivores in the late Pleistocene, ranging from southern Africa to the southern USA, but little is known about the evolutionary relationships among these Pleistocene populations or the dynamics that led to their extinction. Using ancient DNA techniques, we obtained mitochondrial sequences from 52 individuals sampled across(More)
OBJECTIVES The goal of this preliminary study was to determine whether neck surface electromyography (sEMG) is sensitive to possible changes in vocal hyperfunction associated with injection laryngoplasty, particularly with respect to alterations in the degree of vocal hyperfunction. METHODS Thirteen individuals undergoing office-based injection(More)
OBJECTIVES The objectives were to assess the clinical performance and accuracy of a prototype fiberoptic transnasal laryngeal endoscope with an auxiliary optical system that allows images to be spatially calibrated. METHODS A novel fiberoptic endoscope was developed that projects green laser beams across the field of view from a separate optical channel.(More)
OBJECTIVE Optical coherence tomography (OCT), an imaging technology that provides cross-sectional subsurface tissue structure images using back-scattered light, is a promising noninvasive imaging modality for in vivo assessment of vocal fold layered microstructure. Polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) augments conventional OCT by detecting changes in the(More)
The 532 nm pulsed KTP (potassium titanyl phosphate) laser and the 585 nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) are photoangiolytic lasers that have been demonstrated to be effective for managing vocal fold dysplasia. The putative mechanism of action is selective photoangiolysis of the sublesional microcirculation. On the basis of this experience, early glottic cancers(More)
Every critical advancement in direct laryngoscopic surgical technique has enhanced its precision. Among the most notable was Killian's seminal description of suspension laryngoscopy 90 years ago, which allowed for bimanual direct laryngoscopic surgery. Because of the technical difficulties encountered while performing suspension laryngoscopy, Brünings and(More)
OBJECTIVES Discerning the layered microstructure of the vocal folds is critical for effective phonomicrosurgery. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a noncontact, noninvasive technology that provides cross-sectional images by means of backscattered light, offers the potential for delineating these layers in vivo. METHODS The glottal mucosa of 3 human(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether the timing of early (≤6 months from time of nerve injury) vs. late (>6 months) injection medialization laryngoplasty impacts the need for subsequent open-neck reconstruction to restore vocal function in patients with unilateral vocal cord paralysis. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective chart review. METHODS A total of 112 outpatient(More)