James A. Ashton-Miller

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BACKGROUND To compare levator ani defects and pelvic floor function among women with prolapse and controls. METHODS Levator ani structure and function were measured in a case-control study with group matching for age, race, and hysterectomy status among 151 women with prolapse (cases) and 135 controls with normal support (controls) determined by pelvic(More)
Falls associated with tripping over an obstacle can be devastating to elderly individuals, yet little is known about the strategies used for stepping over obstacles by either old or young adults. The gait of gender-matched groups of 24 young and 24 old healthy adults (mean ages 22 and 71 years) was studied during a 4 m approach to and while stepping over(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify obstetric factors associated with development of levator ani injury after vaginal birth. METHODS Magnetic resonance images were taken of the pelvic floor of 160 women 9 to 12 months after first term vaginal delivery. Half the women had de novo stress incontinence and half were continent controls. Abnormalities of the pubovisceral(More)
BACKGROUND Earlier studies showed that healthy old adults have substantially reduced abilities to develop joint torques rapidly. We hypothesized that this age decline would reduce abilities to regain balance once a forward fall is underway. The present study examined whether aging in fact reduces ability to regain balance by taking a single, rapid step upon(More)
BACKGROUND Previous work has found that healthy older men were significantly less able than young male adults to recover balance by taking a single rapid step upon sudden release from forward leans. In light of the higher rates of falls and fall-related injuries among older women compared to older men, we hypothesized that healthy older women would perform(More)
OBJECTIVES When large disturbances of upright stance occur, balance must usually be restored by taking a step. We undertook this study to examine the biomechanics of stepping responses to sudden backward pulls at the waist. Primarily, response differences between young and old healthy adults were sought. DESIGN A controlled laboratory study. SUBJECTS(More)
The anatomic structures in the female that prevent incontinence and genital organ prolapse on increases in abdominal pressure during daily activities include sphincteric and supportive systems. In the urethra, the action of the vesical neck and urethral sphincteric mechanisms maintains urethral closure pressure above bladder pressure. Decreases in the(More)
There is little question that ankle disc training can improve ankle muscle motor performance in a unipedal balance task, most likely through improved strength and coordination [62] and possibly endurance. How much of the observed improvement in motor performance is due to improved ankle proprioception remains unknown. We have reviewed a number of(More)
BACKGROUND When balance is disturbed, often only fractions of a second are available in which to make the initial responses needed for its restoration. Abilities to develop joint torques rapidly may be critical to such responses. We undertook this study to quantify age effects among healthy adults in abilities to develop ankle joint torques rapidly. (More)
OBJECTIVE To develop a three-dimensional computer model to predict levator ani muscle stretch during vaginal birth. METHODS Serial magnetic resonance images from a healthy nulliparous 34-year-old woman, published anatomic data, and engineering graphics software were used to construct a structural model of the levator ani muscles along with related passive(More)