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BACKGROUND To compare levator ani defects and pelvic floor function among women with prolapse and controls. METHODS Levator ani structure and function were measured in a case-control study with group matching for age, race, and hysterectomy status among 151 women with prolapse (cases) and 135 controls with normal support (controls) determined by pelvic(More)
Falls associated with tripping over an obstacle can be devastating to elderly individuals, yet little is known about the strategies used for stepping over obstacles by either old or young adults. The gait of gender-matched groups of 24 young and 24 old healthy adults (mean ages 22 and 71 years) was studied during a 4 m approach to and while stepping over(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify obstetric factors associated with development of levator ani injury after vaginal birth. METHODS Magnetic resonance images were taken of the pelvic floor of 160 women 9 to 12 months after first term vaginal delivery. Half the women had de novo stress incontinence and half were continent controls. Abnormalities of the pubovisceral(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the effect of pelvic muscle exercise on postpartum symptoms of stress urinary incontinence and pelvic muscle strength in primigravidas during pregnancy and postpartum. METHODS A prospective trial randomized women into treatment (standardized instruction in pelvic muscle exercise) or control (routine care with no systematic pelvic muscle(More)
BACKGROUND Earlier studies showed that healthy old adults have substantially reduced abilities to develop joint torques rapidly. We hypothesized that this age decline would reduce abilities to regain balance once a forward fall is underway. The present study examined whether aging in fact reduces ability to regain balance by taking a single, rapid step upon(More)
BACKGROUND Tripping over an obstacle is a common cause of falls in the elderly. An earlier study of abilities to avoid stepping on suddenly appearing obstacles found that, although healthy old adults had a lower rate-of-success than young adults, the magnitude of that difference was not large. The present study inquired whether dividing attention during(More)
The anatomic structures in the female that prevent incontinence and genital organ prolapse on increases in abdominal pressure during daily activities include sphincteric and supportive systems. In the urethra, the action of the vesical neck and urethral sphincteric mechanisms maintains urethral closure pressure above bladder pressure. Decreases in the(More)
The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between midsagittal vaginal wall geometric parameters and the degree of anterior vaginal prolapse. We have previously presented data indicating that about half of anterior wall descent can be explained by the degree of apical descent present (Summers et al., Am J Obstet Gynecol, 194:1438–1443,(More)
BACKGROUND Previous work has found that healthy older men were significantly less able than young male adults to recover balance by taking a single rapid step upon sudden release from forward leans. In light of the higher rates of falls and fall-related injuries among older women compared to older men, we hypothesized that healthy older women would perform(More)
Approximately 11% of U.S. women undergo surgery for pelvic floor dysfunction, including genital organ prolapse and urinary and fecal incontinence. The major risk factor for developing these conditions is giving vaginal birth. Vaginal birth is a remarkable event about which little is known from a biomechanical perspective. We first review the functional(More)