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Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a global public health problem, has for decades been attributed solely to declining estrogen levels. Although FSH levels rise sharply in parallel, a direct effect of FSH on the skeleton has never been explored. We show that FSH is required for hypogonadal bone loss. Neither FSHbeta nor FSH receptor (FSHR) null mice have bone(More)
The established function of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is to promote thyroid follicle development and hormone secretion. The osteoporosis associated with hyperthyroidism is traditionally viewed as a secondary consequence of altered thyroid function. We provide evidence for direct effects of TSH on both components of skeletal remodeling, osteoblastic(More)
CD38 is an ectocyclase that converts NAD+ to the Ca2+-releasing second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPr). Here we report that in addition to CD38 ecto-catalysis, intracellularly expressed CD38 may catalyze NAD+-->cADPr conversion to cause cytosolic Ca2+ release. High levels of CD38 were found in the plasma membranes, endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclear(More)
We have evaluated the role of the ADP-ribosyl cyclase, CD38, in bone remodeling, a process by which the skeleton is being renewed constantly through the coordinated activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. CD38 catalyzes the cyclization of its substrate, NAD+, to the Ca2+-releasing second messenger, cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPr). We have shown previously that(More)
We predict that the type 2 ryanodine receptor isoform (RyR-2) located in the osteoclastic membrane functions as a Ca(2+) influx channel and as a divalent cation (Ca(2+)) sensor. Cytosolic Ca(2+) measurements revealed Ca(2+) influx in osteoclasts at depolarized membrane potentials. The cytosolic Ca(2+) change was, as expected, not seen in Ca(2+)-free medium(More)
Epidemiologic studies correlate low vitamin C intake with bone loss. The genetic deletion of enzymes involved in de novo vitamin C synthesis in mice, likewise, causes severe osteoporosis. However, very few studies have evaluated a protective role of this dietary supplement on the skeleton. Here, we show that the ingestion of vitamin C prevents the(More)
In macrophages and osteoclast precursors, the cytokines TNF and RANK-L induce similar downstream pathways and share some of the same adaptor molecules. However, despite these similarities, no defined signaling schematic has emerged to show how each cytokine favors particular pathways. In this report, we investigate whether TNF and RANK-L differentially(More)
Here, we demonstrate that the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-sensitive phosphatase calcineurin is a necessary downstream mediator for osteoclast differentiation. Using quantitative PCR, we detected the calcineurin isoforms Aalpha, Abeta, Agamma (catalytic), and B1 (regulatory) in osteoclast precursor RAW-C3 cells. We found that, although the expression of these isoforms(More)
Salsolinol (1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline), the endogenous dopamine-derived catechol isoquinolines whose structure is similar with MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), may be a possible candidate of dopaminergic neurotoxins to elicit Parkinson’s disease (PD). Catechol isoquinolines can selectively target dopaminergic(More)
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