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Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a global public health problem, has for decades been attributed solely to declining estrogen levels. Although FSH levels rise sharply in parallel, a direct effect of FSH on the skeleton has never been explored. We show that FSH is required for hypogonadal bone loss. Neither FSHbeta nor FSH receptor (FSHR) null mice have bone(More)
Androgens are involved in a variety of centrally mediated functions after binding to their intracellular receptors. In the present report, we have employed the androgen receptor antibody, PG-21, and indirect immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution of cells containing androgen receptor-like immunoreactivity (AR-IR) in the intact adult male Brazilian(More)
We have used bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) single and BrdU-arginine vasopressin-oxytocin (BrdU-AVP-OT) double and triple label immunohistochemistry to characterize postnatal neurogenesis of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in the Brazilian opossum. Developing pups received a single injection of BrdU between days 1 and 11 postnatally. All brains were(More)
The established function of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is to promote thyroid follicle development and hormone secretion. The osteoporosis associated with hyperthyroidism is traditionally viewed as a secondary consequence of altered thyroid function. We provide evidence for direct effects of TSH on both components of skeletal remodeling, osteoblastic(More)
CD38 is an ectocyclase that converts NAD+ to the Ca2+-releasing second messenger cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPr). Here we report that in addition to CD38 ecto-catalysis, intracellularly expressed CD38 may catalyze NAD+-->cADPr conversion to cause cytosolic Ca2+ release. High levels of CD38 were found in the plasma membranes, endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclear(More)
We have evaluated the role of the ADP-ribosyl cyclase, CD38, in bone remodeling, a process by which the skeleton is being renewed constantly through the coordinated activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. CD38 catalyzes the cyclization of its substrate, NAD+, to the Ca2+-releasing second messenger, cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPr). We have shown previously that(More)
We predict that the type 2 ryanodine receptor isoform (RyR-2) located in the osteoclastic membrane functions as a Ca(2+) influx channel and as a divalent cation (Ca(2+)) sensor. Cytosolic Ca(2+) measurements revealed Ca(2+) influx in osteoclasts at depolarized membrane potentials. The cytosolic Ca(2+) change was, as expected, not seen in Ca(2+)-free medium(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes is a common cause of polyneuropathy. The development and progression of nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy are closely related. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors delay progression of both nephropathy and retinopathy. We investigated the effect of ACE inhibition on diabetic neuropathy. METHODS We recruited 41(More)
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been shown to function as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in addition to its hormonal function in the periphery in the adult central nervous system (CNS). Previously, we have studied the postnatal neurogenesis of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei and ontogeny of arginine vasopressin-like immunoreactivity(More)
IL-2 and equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) initiated reactivation of equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) from venous lymphocytes at a frequency of 1/10(-5). Indirect immunofluorescence showed that > 80% of virus-positive leukocytes were CD5+/CD8+ with the remaining 20% being CD5+/CD8-/CD4-. Cocultivation demonstrated that the reactivated virus was infectious. In(More)