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The incidence of colorectal cancer was studied by the actuarial method in 959 patients with idiopathic proctocolitis seen from 1942 to 1981. Forty five per cent had rectal, 23% left-sided, and 32% total involvement of the colon. Six cancers were found: one in the rectal, one in the left-sided, and four in the total form of the disease. The risk of cancer(More)
Antibodies are assembled by a highly orchestrated series of recombination events during B cell development. One of these events, class switch recombination, is required to produce the IgG, IgE and IgA antibody isotypes characteristic of a secondary immune response. The action of the enzyme activation induced cytidine deaminase is now known to be essential(More)
Sensing ion or ligand concentrations, physico-chemical conditions, and molecular dimerization or conformation change is possible by assays involving fluorescent lifetime imaging. The inherent low throughput of imaging impedes rigorous statistical data analysis on large cell numbers. We address this limitation by developing a fluorescence lifetime-measuring(More)
Biological changes in tissue also affect its biophysical and consequently its electrical properties. By the method here described, high-frequency current is caused to flow through the tissue under examination and the voltage decrease is measured. Measuring equipment of the author's own design has been developed for routine use of the method. The results of(More)
We present a novel imaging system combining total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy with measurement of steady-state acceptor fluorescence anisotropy in order to perform live cell Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) imaging at the plasma membrane. We compare directly the imaging performance of fluorescence anisotropy resolved TIRF with(More)