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pi-Conjugated polymers that are electrochemically cycled in ionic liquids have enhanced lifetimes without failure (up to 1 million cycles) and fast cycle switching speeds (100 ms). We report results for electrochemical mechanical actuators, electrochromic windows, and numeric displays made from three types of pi-conjugated polymers: polyaniline,(More)
BACKGROUND Capsaicin-sensitive nerve fibres protect gastrointestinal mucosa in animal models of mucosal injury by modulation of mucosal blood flow and mucus secretion. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of capsaicin-sensitive nerve fibres in rat colonic mucosa on epithelial cell proliferation and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha)(More)
BACKGROUND Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha protect the gastrointestinal mucosa against injury. In response to mucosal injury TGF-alpha, but not EGF, is locally increasingly expressed in the mucosa of the rat colon and stomach 4-8 h after injury. The aim of our present study was to characterize the possible signal for(More)