Learn More
Alterations in the immune system may have importance for the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have linked increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to depression and depressive symptoms. There is growing evidence that antidepressive treatment may influence the production of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In the present study we(More)
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the brain. It is found in the highest levels in cortical and limbic structures and also in the basal ganglia. Two subtypes of CCK receptors have been described in the brain and gastrointestinal tissues. CCK(A) (alimentary subtype) receptors are mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract,(More)
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has been reported to reduce anxiety in a broad range of clinical populations. However, its efficacy in alleviating core symptoms of specific anxiety disorders is not well established. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate how well MBSR compared to a first-line psychological intervention for social anxiety(More)
OBJECTIVE In the present investigation we screened a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes relevant to the neurobiology of anxiety for their association with panic disorder (PD). METHODS The study sample included 127 patients with PD and 146 healthy control subjects. Using Arrayed Primer Extension technology we genotyped 90(More)
Anxiety and depression are dimensions of emotional state that can be validly assessed with self-report measures. This article introduces a new self-report questionnaire for depression and anxiety (Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q)) and presents data on its reliability and validity. The items of the EST-Q were derived from diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV(More)
Eight patients with panic disorder were administered 20 micrograms of cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) before and after 8 weeks of treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram. All patients responded to treatment by showing a significant general improvement and reaching a panic-free state for 2 weeks. At the rechallenge(More)
Previous studies suggest a modulatory role of serotonin (5-HT) in experimentally-induced panic attacks. In the current study, we investigated the acute effects of 5-HT precursor l-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on the response to panicogenic challenge with cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4) in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two subjects were randomized to(More)
Investigations of the pharmacologic profile of medicinal plants have revealed that a number of plants with purported anxiolytic activity bind to cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors. This finding is intriguing in view of the proposed involvement of CCK in the pathophysiology of fear and anxiety. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken to(More)
This article examines the effect of baseline anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and dysfunctional attitudes on the response to cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) in healthy volunteers. CCK-4 and placebo were administered to 14 subjects in a double-blind manner. Four volunteers experienced a panic attack after CCK-4 administration. Those subjects who panicked(More)
BACKGROUND Several functional imaging studies have demonstrated increases of brain activity in the temporofrontal, cingulate, and claustrum regions during a pharmacologically induced panic attack when scanning was done at a single point in time. However, no study has evaluated changes in brain activity at two time points during a panic attack. We(More)