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Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the brain. It is found in the highest levels in cortical and limbic structures and also in the basal ganglia. Two subtypes of CCK receptors have been described in the brain and gastrointestinal tissues. CCK(A) (alimentary subtype) receptors are mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract,(More)
Alterations in the immune system may have importance for the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have linked increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to depression and depressive symptoms. There is growing evidence that antidepressive treatment may influence the production of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In the present study we(More)
OBJECTIVE In the present investigation we screened a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes relevant to the neurobiology of anxiety for their association with panic disorder (PD). METHODS The study sample included 127 patients with PD and 146 healthy control subjects. Using Arrayed Primer Extension technology we genotyped 90(More)
Eight patients with panic disorder were administered 20 micrograms of cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) before and after 8 weeks of treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram. All patients responded to treatment by showing a significant general improvement and reaching a panic-free state for 2 weeks. At the rechallenge(More)
This article examines the effect of baseline anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and dysfunctional attitudes on the response to cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) in healthy volunteers. CCK-4 and placebo were administered to 14 subjects in a double-blind manner. Four volunteers experienced a panic attack after CCK-4 administration. Those subjects who panicked(More)
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has been reported to reduce anxiety in a broad range of clinical populations. However, its efficacy in alleviating core symptoms of specific anxiety disorders is not well established. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate how well MBSR compared to a first-line psychological intervention for social anxiety(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of pre-experimental stress on the anxiogenic-like action of caerulein, an agonist of cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors. Differences in the anxiety levels of rats in summer and winter, and the role of CCK in these behavioural alterations, were also examined. DESIGN Prospective animal study. INTERVENTIONS Male Wistar rats(More)
There is strong evidence for the importance of the serotonin (5-HT) system in the neurobiology of panic disorder (PD); however, the exact role of this system remains unclear. The 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) is a key element in 5-HT neurotransmission. The current study aimed to investigate the binding of 5-HTT in the brain of patients with PD. We used(More)
BACKGROUND Several functional imaging studies have demonstrated increases of brain activity in the temporofrontal, cingulate, and claustrum regions during a pharmacologically induced panic attack when scanning was done at a single point in time. However, no study has evaluated changes in brain activity at two time points during a panic attack. We(More)
The role of the serotonin (5-HT) system in the neurobiology and treatment of panic disorder (PD) remains unproven. Previously we detected lower brain 5-HT transporter (SERT) availability in PD, but the findings were preliminary and mainly limited to female patients. The aim of this study was to assess non-displaceable brain SERT binding potential (BP (ND))(More)