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Alterations in the immune system may have importance for the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have linked increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to depression and depressive symptoms. There is growing evidence that antidepressive treatment may influence the production of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In the present study we(More)
OBJECTIVE In the present investigation we screened a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes relevant to the neurobiology of anxiety for their association with panic disorder (PD). METHODS The study sample included 127 patients with PD and 146 healthy control subjects. Using Arrayed Primer Extension technology we genotyped 90(More)
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has been reported to reduce anxiety in a broad range of clinical populations. However, its efficacy in alleviating core symptoms of specific anxiety disorders is not well established. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate how well MBSR compared to a first-line psychological intervention for social anxiety(More)
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the brain. It is found in the highest levels in cortical and limbic structures and also in the basal ganglia. Two subtypes of CCK receptors have been described in the brain and gastrointestinal tissues. CCK(A) (alimentary subtype) receptors are mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract,(More)
This study was designed to compare growth hormone, cortisol and prolactin responses to physical exercise in depressed patients and healthy comparison subjects. Patients fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for current major depressive disorder; subjective depressive symptoms were rated with Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) immediately(More)
A sample of 855 rural adult inhabitants of Udmurtia was interviewed by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in order to investigate the incidence and prevalence of mood disorders. Depression affected 30.5% of the population according to ICD-10, and 22% according to DSM-III-R over a 12-month period. Depressive disorders were more(More)
OBJECTIVE The current study presents data on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the Estonian population and examines associated sociodemographic factors and subjective aspects of social adjustment. METHOD The data came from the Estonian Health Interview Survey where 4711 persons aged 15-79 were interviewed. This study included 4677 respondents who(More)
Previous studies suggest a modulatory role of serotonin (5-HT) in experimentally-induced panic attacks. In the current study, we investigated the acute effects of 5-HT precursor l-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on the response to panicogenic challenge with cholecystokinin-tetrapeptide (CCK-4) in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two subjects were randomized to(More)
A sample of 855 rural adult inhabitants in Udmurtia was interviewed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1:1 (CIDI) to investigate the incidence and prevalence of alcohol-related disorders. Harmful use of alcohol and alcohol dependence affected 37.1% of the population according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R in a lifetime period. The incidence of(More)
Eight patients with panic disorder were administered 20 micrograms of cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) before and after 8 weeks of treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram. All patients responded to treatment by showing a significant general improvement and reaching a panic-free state for 2 weeks. At the rechallenge(More)