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The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is required to block sister chromatid separation until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic apparatus. The SAC prevents cells from entering anaphase by inhibiting the ubiquitylation of cyclin B1 and securin by the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. The target of the SAC is the(More)
BubR1 is a central component of the spindle assembly checkpoint that inhibits progression into anaphase in response to improper kinetochore-microtubule interactions. In addition, BubR1 also helps stabilize kinetochore-microtubule interactions by counteracting the Aurora B kinase but the mechanism behind this is not clear. Here we show that BubR1 directly(More)
RACK1 serves as a scaffold protein for a wide range of kinases and membrane-bound receptors. It is a WD-repeat family protein and is predicted to have a beta-propeller architecture with seven blades like a Gbeta protein. Mass spectrometry studies have identified its association with the small subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes and, most recently, it has been(More)
The receptor for activated C-kinase (RACK1) is a scaffold protein that is able to interact simultaneously with several signalling molecules. It binds to protein kinases and membrane-bound receptors in a regulated fashion. Interestingly, RACK1 is also a constituent of the eukaryotic ribosome, and a recent cryo-electron microscopy study localized it to the(More)
Nonproteolytic ubiquitylation of chromatin surrounding deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the RNF8/RNF168/HERC2 ubiquitin ligases facilitates restoration of genome integrity by licensing chromatin to concentrate genome caretaker proteins near the lesions. In parallel, SUMOylation of so-far elusive upstream DSB regulators is also(More)
The Ndc80 complex establishes end-on attachment of kinetochores to microtubules, which is essential for chromosome segregation. The Ndc80 subunit is characterized by an N-terminal region that binds directly to microtubules, and a long coiled-coil region that interacts with Nuf2. A loop region in Ndc80 that generates a kink in the structure disrupts the long(More)
On the basis of kinetic data on ribosome protein synthesis, the mechanical energy for translocation of the mRNA-tRNA complex is thought to be provided by GTP hydrolysis of an elongation factor (eEF2 in eukaryotes, EF-G in bacteria). We have obtained cryo-EM reconstructions of eukaryotic ribosomes complexed with ADP-ribosylated eEF2 (ADPR-eEF2), before and(More)
Dynamic protein phosphorylation is a fundamental mechanism regulating biological processes in all organisms. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is the main source of phosphatase activity in the cell, but the molecular details of substrate recognition are unknown. Here, we report that a conserved surface-exposed pocket on PP2A regulatory B56 subunits binds to a(More)
Genome integrity is critically dependent on timely DNA replication and accurate chromosome segregation. Replication stress delays replication into G2/M, which in turn impairs proper chromosome segregation and inflicts DNA damage on the daughter cells. Here we show that TopBP1 forms foci upon mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and(More)
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures proper chromosome segregation by delaying anaphase onset in response to unattached kinetochores. Checkpoint signalling requires the kinetochore localization of the Mad1-Mad2 complex that in more complex eukaryotes depends on the Rod-Zwilch-ZW10 (RZZ) complex. The kinetochore protein Zwint has been proposed to be(More)